Construction Companies

Dear New Employees,We are going to be searching for new clients worldwide. We will find these companies through Google search, The Yellow Pages, Yahoo, Bing, Wikipedia, White Pages, business directory, www.list-of-companies.org and other countries search engines. I have attached the key words I want you to use in the search engine to find the right companies that suit our Business. I have also attached the format in Excel in which to I want you to take down the information that is more important to LVG Auctions. I will send you a script after we have gone though the e-mails and you have found the e-mails that fit best for us. We hope you can get a feel for what you??™re doing.
Before you start searching for construction companies I want you to think about what our business is, we are a heavy equipment and construction auction. LVG Auctions is not looking for little companies that don??™t have much equipment. We want companies with some size to them. Put yourself in their shoes, the company has to have the money to ship the equipment to our country.
The best way of searching for companies on Google is by putting the key words into Google maps for example ???construction companies??? you will get a list of construction companies and some of them will have links to their website and others will not. Please take down their information, but I would like you to focus more on the ones with an e-mail address. It also helps to get even more e-mails by putting the major cities in the Google Map for explain ???Brazil Sao Paulo Construction companies???. The way I would find the major cities in each country is by searching for them on Wikipedia and they list the cities by population size. Make sure you keep going to the next page on Google maps because sometimes they have better names later on.
Wikipedia will have all of the Major Construction companies for each country. You should make a note of that fact, because this will be great for finding companies to call. They will be the biggest Construction companies in the country. Wikipedia only has a few resources so it??™s not the best place to get a lot of e-mails.
Through Yahoo and Bing you are going to have to go though the search Engine not like in Google were they list the companies in Google maps.
Yellow Page and White Page will all be different on each country you are working on.You many find other ways of finding e-mails though different websites, please tell me about them first so I can check them out. Each country will have different ways on how they list their construction companies. It will be helpful if you can give me some feed back too. Sincerely,
Chad Guziewicz
Marketing & Business Development
LVG Auctions

How Do Advertisers Appeal to Their Target Audience

How do advertisers appeal to their target audienceMany companies use advertising to promote their products and to make them known to a wider range of customers. Advertising is also used to persuade potential customers to buy a companies products over rival ones. Advertising is an effective way for companies to get people to recognise their products. There are several ways in which companies aim to advertise and one of these ways is through television advertisement. This is a very influential way for the advertising companies to showcase their products by using video clips to show what how they work and voiceovers to persuade the viewers to buy the product. Slogans are also used in many advertising campaigns to make certain products stick in peoples minds. For example, the rhyming slogan in the Mars bar adverts; “Pleasure without measure” is catchy and easy for people to remember. Television adverts also have the ability to use different camera angles and shots to accentuate the product and show the viewer why they should buy it over other brands. Jingles and popular music are often used in television and radio advertisements. These help people to remember the advert and hopefully encourage them to buy the product. Television has a vast audience which makes it a very effective form of advertising.Other ways companies advertise is through radio broadcasting. Slogans, jingles, popular music and sound effects are used to make people remember the product. Because many people listen to the radio this is also a good way to advertise. Business cards and posters are also effective forms of advertisement. Business cards are easy to distribute and are small and handy. They usually have the product or company logo printed on them and any slogans they might have, along with addresses and telephone numbers. However, because they are so small they can be easily lost. Posters are also effective forms of advertisement that can be seen in many different places so a wide range of potential customers are made aware of the product. They are made to be eye catching and use pictures of the product along with slogans and logos. Posters appear in a variety of places such as magazines and blown up to be put on billboards. This makes them a very effective form of advertising. Advertising companies use many different devices and techniques to advertise products. For instance, puns and word play are used. This is when a word or phrase has a double meaning. Also emotive language that aims to make the viewer react in a certain way. Sometimes facts are incorporated which proves that the product is of high quality making people more likely to buy it. Other things like camera angles, unique selling points and repetition are also effective devices for advertisements.The two television advertisements that will be explored in this essay are the contrasting perfume commercials; Christian Dior-Pure Poison and Estella Warren-Chanel No.5. Both advertisements are effective in the way they try to engage the viewers and try to influence them to buy the products and they are also similar as they advertise the same genre of product.
However they are presented using different techniques and devices, such as sex appeal, soundtracks and unique selling points. Both advertisements use different camera shots and ways of lighting to achieve different effects on the viewers because they have different target audiences. The adverts also contrast as they are set at different paces, the Pure Poison being very fast paced and the Chanel No.5 is much more calm and slower.The advertisement for the Christian Dior-Pure Poison perfume aims to appeal to a younger audience as the unique selling point of the advertisement is that it is very seductive and wild. The advert uses glamour and sex appeal by using a beautiful model in dark revealing clothing and make up. The advert begins with a close up camera shot of a panther like beast growling menacingly towards the camera. The only light that can be seen is the glint of light on the beasts fur and teeth. Then it cuts to a medium shot of the model in a darkly lit room and the only light that can be seen is reflections on shiny surfaces and mirrors. The model holds on to a hand rail against a wall and throws her head back moving her body seductively. There is primitive tribal drum music played throughout which gives the advertisement a very dangerous fast paced atmosphere. The model moves around as if being attacked by something but this is done so in a seductive way. It then cuts to a close up shot of the model sliding down the wall in the same provocative way as before. The shot cuts to the previous one very fast and transition of the shots is as if it is the vision of a frenzied beast on the hunt. The camera is shaky and fast moving. The advertisement then cuts to a medium shot of the beast rushing underneath the model and through her legs as if tormenting her, then cuts to a close up of the model and she lets out a groan like a distressed animal and rips the beads from her neck. The camera then cuts to a medium shot of the girl??™s legs as the beads fall to the floor around her. Then there is a wide-shot of the girl sliding down the wall once again then she crawls along the ground like a wild cat. There is a head-on close up of the model crawling towards across the floor and there is a squeaky sound effect as she drags herself across the floor. Then there is a long shot of the product on a table against a very dark background. The perfume bottle is a very pale colour so it stands out against the darkness. In this same shot, the camera zooms into the bottle but not all the way. The camera angle and how it is handled is as if the perfume bottle is the vision of a predator. As the camera zooms in on the bottle, there is a strange ringing sound effect over the music but when the shot changes to a close up of the model crawling towards the bottle, the ringing echo is replaced with the models heavy breathing and her face depicts an animal??™s instinct of survival. The next shot is a close up of the bottle as the camera zooms in and the ringing can be heard again then it changes quickly to a close up of the beast moving towards the camera snarling chasing after the girl. Then there is a very close up shot of the girl gasping and the shot quickly changes to a close up of the product and then the models hand can be seen grabbing the bottle. As she does this, the ringing stops. There is a medium shot of the girl on the floor holding the bottle and bringing it closer to her face and caresses it with her lips. There is then a close up of her face which is feral and dangerous. The camera moves sharply as the girl turns her head towards the beast and she hisses at it making it run away in a medium shot. The Model is then seen in a slower paced wide angle shot as she sits back on a sofa in a seductive position.
Her movements and facial expression are animal like and she sits growling alluringly at the camera as it zooms in. A female voice over can be heard as the shot changes to the final one of the pale perfume bottle against a dark background making it very clear and eye catching. The voice is seductive and as part of the unique selling point, she changes the word “fragrance” to “seduction”.
Throughout the advertisement, there is a lot of sex appeal from the clothing, to the lighting, to the movements and facial expressions of the model. The way the camera zooms into the product as if it were a predator hunting its prey makes the perfume seem like an object of desire and this appeals to potential customers. The commercial is very fast paced with a lot of fast transitions and camera angles that are shaky. The sound effects used emphasise the movement of the visual like the animal sounds added to the wild theme of the advertisement. The model is beautiful and glamorous to endorse the product and give the advert an exciting quality that suggests that the product can enhance a persons lifestyle. This advert is aimed at younger women, about 16 to 25 as it incorporates a lot of provocative qualities and younger people are more likely to be persuaded by it.The advertisement for the Estella warren-Chanel No.5 perfume is aimed at a wide range of customers as it would appeal to both younger and older viewers. However, an older audience might be more attracted to the product as it is presented in a classy way. The advertisement has a fairytale theme to it features a wolf and the model is dressed like Little Red Riding Hood. This would appeal to older viewers as they would want the perfume to make them feel younger. The commercial starts with a high angle shot is of the model walking down a hall towards a door clearly marked with the perfumes number “5” logo. The model is made to look modest and innocent in a red dress and cape, holding a basket. The girl is blonde and this highlights the innocence she is supposed to be portraying. Innocent, cheerful music is played using bells and a female choir. Bright and warm colours are featured such as red and gold. Gold is featured a lot in the advertisement and this suggests wealth and class, the perfume bottle itself is gold. The unique selling point of the product is that it is set in Paris and it has a fairytale theme to it. The next shot is a close up of the door opening and the “5” logo is shown again. A medium shot from behind shows the girl stepping through the door, setting down the basket and walking curiously through a completely golden room towards the camera. The model uses innocent arm gestures as she walks and elegantly shows sex appeal. There is then a close up of a wall of the bottles of perfume with the logo marked on the front of them. The girls hand is seen reaching out to take one of the bottles and then the shot changes to a view from behind the bottles and the model can be seen through the gap where the bottle she took was. The model looks at the bottle in awe and then it cuts to a close up shot of a large No.5 logo on a wall once again. Then a silhouette of a wolfs head comes around the corner. The camera then cuts back to a close up of the model as she is dabbing the perfume gracefully onto her neck. The shot then changes to a medium shot of the model swinging her cape around her shoulders as she turns to the door then there is a quick high angle shot of the girl opening the doors she came through at the beginning of the advertisement. Then there is a wide angle shot of the model opening the doors further to reveal the Eiffel tower in a snowy setting. The camera then cuts to a medium shot of the silhouetted wolf moving closer to the camera with the large No.5 still visible in the background. The girl then turns and points as if to chastise the wolf in a medium shot and the wolf, which is standing on a very large No.5 logo with the one on the wall behind still visible, stops in its tracks. There is then a close up of the girl who put a finger to her lips and audibly makes a sshh sound and the wolf sits down obediently. The model smiles and puts her hood up as she turns to go through the doors and walks towards the Eiffel tower in a medium shot. The camera then cuts to a wide angled shot of the wolf howling as the doors close then the camera zooms out quickly from a high angled shot of the wolf sitting in the middle of the huge No.5 on the floor. As the camera zooms out, the No.5 becomes the one on the perfume bottle. There is a close up of the bottle which is gold with a white label and writing and the background it is also white making it very effective and eye catching. The voice over is a French woman which highlights the setting of the advertisement. The fact that the unique selling point is that the perfume is French and that the advertisement features Paris, the perfume suggests to the audience that it is classy and also the gold that is featured throughout the advertisement suggests wealth and beauty. Paris gives the image of excitement, romance and beauty so this would appeal to an older audience. By showing the products logo it makes the audience familiar with it and helps them remember it.
The advert uses glamour, sex appeal and a beautiful model to make the audience believe that the product could give them what they see in the advertisement. Both advertisements featured creatures which could represent men. In the first advertisement the product has the power to control and defend from the beast presenting the message that the customer will be in control of things if they buy the perfume. Whereas in the second advertisement the animal was charmed by the model suggesting that by buying the product the customer will be able to beguile men.To conclude, there are many ways in which companies achieve success in advertising their products using a variety of mediums and techniques. Different devices such as lighting and camera angles can be adjusted to appeal to the target audience. Storylines and the actors and models featured in the advertisements also make a large contribution to the success of the advertisement. By having a theme and unique selling point, the companies are able to create the right atmosphere and emphasise the right things to appeal to the target audience. The two advertisements explored in this essay are successful in appealing to their target audiences.Chelsea Cleveland-Hurley

Construction and the Environment

Construction and the Environment
1) Select and describe a fit ??“for-purpose sustainable construction technique for each of the following issues; energy, materials and waste Energy
Greener buildings often include measures to reduce energy use. To increase the efficiency of the building they may use high-efficiency windows and insulation in walls, ceilings, and floors. Solar water heating further reduces energy loads.
Onsite generation of renewable energy through solar power, wind power, hydro power, or biomass can significantly reduce the environmental impact of the building. Power generation is generally the most expensive feature to add to a building.
Solar power
The term solar power is used to describe a number of methods of harnessing energy from the sun. As fossil fuel sources deplete and environmental concerns about greenhouse gasses increase, renewable energies such as solar power are increasing in popularity across the world including the UK.
There are two types of solar power-solar electric power which use photovoltaic cells to convert solar radiation into electricity, and solar thermal energy where the sun??™s energy is used to heat water. Photovoltaic cells consist of one or two layers of a semi conducting material which is usually silicon. When light shines on the cell it creates an electric field across the layers, causing electricity to flow. The greater the intensity of the light the greater the flow of electricity. Solar thermal energy is a relatively simple process where water is pumped into solar panels and, as it passes through them, is heated and then stored in a tank ready for use. The new systems that are being made today can keep the water hot for good periods of time.
In both cases solar panels are usually fitted to the roof and work during daylight hours, however with a new house being built from the ground-up it may be possible to integrate them more seamlessly into the house. It is a misconception that solar panels only work with direct sunlight and solar power collectors can heat water on a very cloudy day. While solar power will not usually completely support a central heating system or provide enough electricity for all a home??™s requirements, a substantial supply of power or domestic hot water can be provided.
Materials-
Sustainable Building materials include rapidly renewable plant materials like bamboo and straw, timber from forests certified to be sustainably managed, ecology blocks, recycled stone, recycled metal, and other products that are non-toxic, reusable, renewable, and recyclable (e.g. Linoleum, sheep wool, panels made from paper flakes, compressed earth block, rammed earth, clay, vermiculite. Building materials should be extracted and manufactured locally to the building site to minimize the energy embedded in their transportation.
Timber frame construction
As its name implies, timber frame construction is a method of building which relies on a timber frame as a basic means of structural support. Framed buildings are often referred to as ???lightweight construction??™, but don??™t be misled, it??™s a precision engineered structure that is remarkably strong and durable. During construction, open panel timber frame is covered internally by plasterboard, filled with high performance insulation. Moisture/vapour barriers are incorporated and the outer leaf of the wall completes the structure. The outer leaf is typically stone, brick, render or timber to suit the local vernacular and planning requirements. There are many other forms of timber frame, including advanced and closed panel systems, volumetric and hybrid systems. Structural Insulated Panel (SIP) technology is another exciting development in timber based construction methods.
Today??™s modern timber frame construction;
??? Is engineered to the highest level of accuracy and quality;
??? Significantly simplifies on-site construction;
??? Promotes greater efficiency and supply chain integration;
??? Brings predictability and greater control to the construction process;
??? Meets and often exceeds all current building regulations;
??? Performs well in terms of fire and flood resistance;
??? Improves construction health and safety; Waste
The construction industry is a major source of waste in England, using the highest tonnage of solid material resources in any sector, over 400 million tonnes. The construction, demolition & excavation (CD&E) sector generates more waste in England than any other sector, and is the largest generator of hazardous waste, around 1.7 million tonnes a year. Objectives of the waste strategy for the construction sector include:
??? provide the drivers for the sector to improve its economic efficiency by creating less waste from design to demolition
??? treat waste as a resource, re-using and recycling more and asking contractors for greater use of recovered material
??? improve the economics of the re-use and recycling sector by increasing demand and securing investment in the treatment of waste
Reducing, Re-using and Recycling
??? Conserves natural resources by reducing the demand for raw materials,
??? Conserves energy and water since manufacturing with recycled materials requires less processing than extracting raw materials,
??? Reduces air and water pollution since manufacturing from recycled materials is generally a cleaner process and uses less energy,
??? Minimizes what is discarded, which maximizes limited landfill capacities and
??? Protects our health and the environment when harmful substances, which can be recycled, are removed from the waste stream and processed back into useable products.
Recycling facts
??? Recycling cuts energy consumption and pollution. Paper recycling can reduce air pollutants by 75% percent and water pollution by 67 percent; using scrap steel and iron rather than virgin products results in an 86 percent reduction in air pollution and a 76 percent reduction in water pollution; recycling aluminum saves 95 percent of the energy used to produce it from virgin products.
??? A ton of recycled paper saves 17 trees and three cubic yards of landfill space.
??? Buying recycled products is an essential part of making recycling work (closing the loop). The residential building industry can play a major role in helping to reduce waste and promote recycling by specifying and asking for recycled products

How Djs Communicate with Club Audience

How do DJs communicate with club audienceCommunication is an inextricable aspect of our everyday life. We engage in communication either as senders of messages or as receivers of messages. And in some cases it is within or to our self. (Beck, A. Bennett, P. and Wall, P. 2005: 1). How DJs communicate with the club audience is without doubt a significant aspect of music entertainment. This essay will focus on how a DJ engages in an effective communication with his/her club audience. It sought to investigate the significance of communication in appearance and performance within a given context (nightclub). In order to examine the communication skills between a DJ and club audience, this essay will briefly discuss a background of the acronym DJ in relation to the club context. Thereafter it will delve into explaining the major communication skills used by DJs to communicate to the audience. A conclusion will then be made recapitulating the main ideas of the essay.
According to Lippit (2006:71), the acronym DJ stands for the words Disc Jockey but the phonetic version Deejay is often used to refer to DJ. (Jones, 2007:12). The club environment contains a lot of interaction. Nightclub environments are playful spaces where the atmosphere encourages exploratory relationships with music, dance, visual elements, and performance. DJs exist in this space to facilitate these explorations with their technical and performative presentation of a live mix or recorded music. (Gates, 2006:72). A DJ therefore acts as an intermediary that enhances these explorations through technical and performative presentation of a live mix of music.
Generally speaking Interaction between the audience and the DJ significantly differs as a priority from DJ to DJ. This is because of certain qualities such as personal preferences, style, and environmental and social factors. Regardless the demands of selecting and mixing music, DJs endeavor to communicate effectively with their audience. Generally speaking a huge number of DJs collect much information in similar ways.
Non-verbal communication is a distinctive way of communication between DJs and club audience. Non-verbal communication in this perspective encompasses different ways of communication such as gesture, dancing, eye contact, facial expression and posture. Francis and Bacon (1884, 1947) recognized gesture as a medium of communication that coordinates with vocal and written language. (GORDON, R. Druckman, D. Rozelle, Rand Baxter, J. 2006: 75). The audiences on the other hand engage in non-verbal communicative approaches to pass on messages to the DJ. Examples of these non-verbal behaviors include smiling, waving their hands, cheering, or dancing. The messages sent and received between DJs and audience are largely embedded in non-verbal communication style.
Dancing is a form of non-verbal communication that plays an important role in the communication between DJs and club audience. Dancing makes use of other ways of non-verbal communication ways such as codes of space, touch, facial expressions, and eye contact. Nevertheless, understanding the message in dancing is a way of communication between DJs and their audience. For instance, when the dance floor is crowded with active dancers the DJ immediately knows that he is brilliantly communicating with his/her audience.
Social Interaction is another explicit way of exploring communication between DJs and club audience. By monitoring the social interaction in the audience, DJs can gather a wide variety of information. For example, when groups of people begin to dance around in circles while the DJ is performing, it clearly communicates to the DJ that the audience is having a great time.
Another significant method of communication between DJs and club audience is by listening to the general hum of the audience. DJs are often trained to be able to recognize different sounds such as conversations, laughter, yelling, cheering, or even silence. All these sounds in turn describe the particular communicative sign that exist at a particular time.
Having said all these it is important to add that there are certain technologies that can be put in clubs to measure the communication skills. These technologies often work in terms of direct dance floor feedback, but this becomes misleading because not everyone who is enjoying the music expresses it in an energetic mode of dancing. Other technologies that measure communication between DJs and audience include HCI developments such as biofeedback mechanisms for crowd-based interactions.
In conclusion, the communication between a DJ and his/her audience is considered in a range of scenarios from verbal and non-verbal communication skills. This essay has tried to discuss the prevalent way DJs communicate with their audience. It focused on non-verbal behavior as communication approaches. This is because a huge fraction of effective communication between DJs and club audience is often non-verbal. Verbal skills such as listening skills and the use of modern technologies was also discussed as method of communication between DJs and their club audience. It is important to note that the success of these recent technologies cannot be matched to core communication skills such as verbal and non-verbal skills.
Reference:
* Beck, A. Bennett, P. and Wall, P., eds. (2005). AS communication studies: the essential introduction?. 2nd edition. [Online] Available from: http://books.google.com/booksid=GqHAuUR3IFkC&dq=communication+in+nightclubs&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s [Accessed 10 November 2011]? * Gates, C. 2006. DJs??™ Perspective on Interaction and Awareness in Nightclubs. Available from: http://www.google.com/searchclient=safari&rls=en&q=djs+vs+club+audience&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8
[Accessed 10 November 2011] * GORDON, R. Druckman, D. Rozelle, Rand Baxter, J. (2006). Core Communication Skills. In: Hargie, O. ed., Handbook of Communication Skills. 3rd edition, East Sussex: Routledge, pp. 75. * Jones, C. 2007. An analysis of the possible methods DJs can use to control audio spatiality in real- time for large-scale surround sound systems. pp 12. Available from:
[Accessed 10 November 2011]

Construct Development

Part I
Construct Development 1. Choose a construct to measure. Instructor Evaluation Survey 2. Create an Operational Definition of the construct: Using three reference sources. This test is designed to evaluate the instructors effectiveness of teaching and motivating the class. The measuring instrument used will be the Likert scale of five. Sampling for the test is 20 students ages 19-40, six male, 14 female, 10 reside in rural areas, six reside in urban areas and four are from another county. There are 5 African Americans, 4 Hispanics and 11 Caucasians, five are single, eight are married and seven have significant others. Administration of this test after each class concludes, compared with the previous class evaluation.
According to the references below, there are several factors involved in making a operational definition. One of the most important things stressed is that the test questions focus on observable behaviors (Armstrong, 1998). There are other important ideas to consider, what is the test designed to measure and what is the objective of the measurement (Ribes, 2003). What is the best format for this test, who benefits from the test (Murphy, 2004) References:
Armstrong, J.S. Are student ratings of instructors useful American Psychologist 0003-066X, 1998, Vol. 53, issue 11.
Murphy, K.R. Teacher evaluations, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.89 (1) (Feb. 2004). pp. 258-164.
Ribes, I. E. “What is defined in operational definitions The Case of Operant Psychology,” Behavior and Philosophy (2003). 3. Five items used to sample the domain
??? Respect
??? Interaction
??? Preparedness
??? Knowledge
??? Style 3. Select the scaling appropriate and justify why.
The scaling I chose to use is the Lickert scale it is easy to use and reported as reliable and valid for over 30 years. This survey is one-dimensional, the Lickert scale consists of five options to select from strongly agree – strongly disagree.
A Class Instructor SurveyPlease circle the response to the following questions that best describes your honest feelings. Your response will help the program.1 = Strongly Disagree 2 = Disagree 3 = Neutral 4 = Agree 5 = Strongly Agree 1. The instructor treated me with respect. 1 2 3 4 5 2. My interaction in the class with the instructor was beneficial. 1 2 3 4 5 3. The Instructor began and ended class on time . 1 2 3 4 5 4. The Instructor was knowledgeable about the class materials. 1 2 3 4 5 5. The Instructors style of teaching made the topics easy to follow. 1 2 3 4 5

Construct and Support

My Decision To Pursue My MBA Degree
Roxana Noboa
MGT/521: Management
March 7, 2011
Susan M. JolleyMy Decision To Pursue My MBA DegreeAbstract
Obtaining an MBA is a big decision and investment and it requires serious commitment. Receiving an MBA would help me in personal and professional growth. According to Mintzberg there are many problems with a conventional MBA program. ???First, the typical program attempts to teach management skills to those who have never managed anything or anyone. This is a waste of time and it demeans current managers??? Mintzberg, H. (2004). Manangers Not MBA??™s. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler. I am writing this paper to construct and support an argument on my decision to purse my MBA degree. In my current position as a project lead I am constantly working with individuals at all levels of my company and my current knowledge have taken me quite far but to take my career to the next level either in my current company or another organization, I need to expand my skill set. I believe that the skills that I will learn as I pursue an MBA will give me an opportunity to do that. While I do know it is not required to have this degree to succeed in today??™s economy, it would help to make me more of an asset wherever I decide to go and help to ensure a more fulfilling future for me, and a more financially secure future for my family. I disagree with Mintzberg. The skills I acquired while pursuing my education have helped me become a leader in my workplace. I trained to work effectively in a team and to be an ???out of the box??? thinker. I also learned the importance of setting clear goals, which in turn helped me to organize my personal, work, and school life. As a result, I was able to complete my Bachelors degree in three years and get the career I desired which benefited me and my children financially.
The economy has changed quite a bit in recent years, and the present business world requires people to have better communication, technical, and management skills in virtually every field. I believe that an MBA will give me the skills I need to succeed and take my career to a higher level.
???THE CIOs at Procter & Gamble and Microsoft dont have one. Neither does the CIO at Wal-Mart. So, no, technically, you dont need to have a masters degree in business administration to be successful in a top technology position at a worldrenowned company. But realistically, its an extremely good idea, especially for pure technologists. That goes not just for CIOs, but for project managers, business analysts and virtually any other IT professional aiming to climb to the top of the corporate ladder. One big reason: No one is exclusively a technology chief anymore. Everybodys a business executive, whether they call themselves that or not??? King, J. (01/20/2011). Should you get an MBA Computerworld, 45(1), 21-22,24,26.
I agree that I am an executive in my job and daily life. I know to be a superior executive in any business I need to understand proper communication to avoid conflict and unintended consequences. Therefore, taking additional communication and management classes will enhance my oral and written skills and make me a more effective asset. ???Communication is essential to any group??™s or organization??™s effectiveness??? Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2007). Organizational Behavior (12th ed.). New York, NY: Prentice Hall. In the corporate world today, one works with many types of people. I completed a Jungian assessment that classified me as ENFJ, which classifies me as someone who is very people-oriented. I agree with the results because I enjoy constantly working with different personalities and collaborating with others on the best way to complete projects. In my MBA program, I work in team setting that teaches me how to work and prepare myself with different small networks and cultures. Given my personality, a MBA is the best place for me to improve my skills and prepare me to solve problems in the actual workplace.
In my current position, I have to overcome barriers that result from cultural and personality differences. Pursing my MBA will enhance and enrich my current skills and knowledge, my effectiveness in the workforce, and business etiquette. An MBA is necessary to be a more effective project manager and a better communicator.
I have to make decisions every day in both my personal life and professional life. I try not to make decisions without careful consideration. I know that sometimes what I perceive is not always accurate. In my management class I work with a team. It is important that I understand how they perceive me and how I perceive them, which will lead to better decision-making. Learning the ???Perception and Individual Decision Making??? Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2007). Organizational Behavior (12th ed.). New York, NY: Prentice Hall. in my MBA program will help me be more creative and use my critical thinking skills and help me not to make quick judgments at work or in my daily life. ???Jim Marascio, chief technology officer at Giraffes in Charlotte, N.C., admits to being somewhat myopic in his approach to decision-making before earning an MBA at the University of Maine. He returned to school to earn an MBA after working a few years in a more engineeringoriented role as a technical liaison, which he landed after earning an undergraduate degree in computer science??? King, J. (01/20/2011, p. 22)
I believe that being able to work and manage my personal life and attend school shows any person I can manage multiple priorities. It will also show that I can manage a team. I might not get the high pay or promotion right away, but it will get me in a position to help transform and make a difference in my company and transition to my future position. It will help me see people and issues in perspective. Getting my MBA teach me new ways of thinking, problem-solving, and decision-making that I can bring to the workplace and teach others I want to inspire others to think ???out of the box.??? Also it will earn me creditability in the business world that I think will give me the self-esteem, drive, and the ability to take me my career to a different level. References
Clouse, B. F. (2008). The Student Writer. Editor and Critic (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
King, J. (01/20/2011). Should you get an MBA Computerworld, 45(1), 21-22,24,26.
Mintzberg, H. (2004). Manangers Not MBA??™s. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2007). Organizational Behavior (12th ed.). New York, NY: Prentice Hall.

How Different Aspects of Development Can Affect One Another. Task 1. 1-2

They might have a learning disability, or, a problem at home which may affect their area such as reading and math skills, language, and behavioral/emotional development, regular teachers (and at least one special education teachers if applicable), and you may still be able to provide help for him in other ways, like hiring a tutor .Disability and sensory impairment, for example loss of sight or hearing,can delay development in some children. This is because an essentialpart of the whole picture of development may be missing. If you thinkabout how important hearing speech is before a child can talk, it is notsurprising that communication skills may be delayed. Multi-agency childdevelopment centres work with children who have some form ofdisability to help to promote their development.
PHYSICAL DISSABILITY
A child can intellectually be smart as in good with math and anything that includes thought processing but if the child has a physical disability it would be hard for them to apply this because they wont be able to balance or may have a delay when sending signals to the body, however, a lot of times children get frusrated when they cant do something because they have a physical disability and this can affect their intellectual development because it makes the child feel less confident. imagine knowing something and knowing how to do it but not being able to apply it or control it.This in turn would make them emotionalyy frustrated, angry and sad at the things they are unable to do which all their friends are doing.
SPEECH PROBLEMS
Speech delay may in turn affect there social development as they may find hard to interact with others who dont understand what they are saying and unable to communicate and then the lack of confidence follow on into adult hood etc
VISUAL IMPAIRED
Their fine motor skills would be limited, their language skills would be delayed. They would be lacking socially and this in turn would lead to them being emotionally angry as well as frustrated and moody as they are limited in the things they would like to do.A child with ADHD who has a mental difficulty would also suffer a language, social and behavioural difficulty which is associated with their condition, as those with DISLEXIA also have a learning dissability which in turn generates low self eateem as well as making them frustrated as they cannot learn as fast as their friends which also makes them worry as well as making them withdrawn and angry.

How Different Aspects of Development Can Affect One Another

HOW DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT CAN EFFECT 0NE ANOTHER * An obese 14 attending Secondary school will struggle when doing sports, and won??™t get the exercise he needs. Which will have an effect on his physical development, being obese could result in him getting teased and bullied, leaving him self-conscious and embarrassed which damages him emotionally. It may result in him skipping school or spending all his time alone which will have a massive effect on him socially * A young child that does not share may find social interaction with other children a problem, other children may be reluctant to play with them, this will effect emotional development as the child will feel lonely and left out * A child who gets bullied will have their development harmed in various ways, they will have their social development effected because they will be scared to interact with others they will become isolated and lonely. Emotionally they may feel angry and frustrated which will lead to behavioural problems as they try to deal with their problems.INFLUENCES THAT EFFECT CHILD DEVELOPMENTThe main effects on a child??™s development come from their Background, Health and their Environment. These effects can be both positive and negative.Background: (negative)Over protective parents hold their children back from exploring the world around them, children need space and freedom to learn and meet new people this helps with their physical, emotional and social development.
Financial hardship has a number of effects on children it can hinder their physical development due to the lack of healthy food, A child can be bullied and teased if they don??™t wear the latest fashion leaving them unlikely to form relationships with other kids and may development an inferiority complex thus harming their social and emotional development. Background: (positive) * Children whose parents encourage them from an early age grow up with more confidence and are a lot more independent. They find it easier to communicate with others helping them to build a better social life.
* Being part of a good school is very important to a child??™s development being in a good school will teach a child discipline it will give them a better education making them more intellectual, and help their social skills as they interact with others on a daily basis.Health: (negative) * A child with a physical disability will not be able to take part in sports at school, this will leave them feeling left out which makes them lonely and sad affecting their emotional development it can also make them angry which leads to behavioural problems as they become frustrated. * A child who has to use a medical product or implement e.g. inhaler or insulin on a daily basis may get singled out and become self conscious they may feel that they are different to everyone else and may shy away from people. This will damage their social and emotional skills and their intellectual development could suffer as they don??™t want to be in schoolHealth: (positive) * Children who eat nourishing foods and vegetables will have better physical development as they will have more energy and stamina which allows them to take part in more activities developing their social and behavioural skills, if a child is healthy and strong they usually have a positive out look on life leading to a desire progress in life.Environment: (negative) * Where a child lives can affect them, if a child lives in a tower block and has no access to a garden or park it can effect their physical development as they won??™t be getting enough fresh air and exercise. It will affect their social and communication skills as they will feel isolated and won??™t be interacting with as many people. Their behaviour may be affected as they will become bored. * If a child lives in an area with high crime or anti-social behaviour and drug use, kids may be afraid to go out affecting all aspects of their development, they might get involved with the wrong people, and their own behaviour will deteriorate. Their physical development will suffer if they get involved with drugs. Their social skills will be affected as members of society will avoid them. They may also decide to drop out of school which will affect them intellectually.Environment: (positive) * If a child lives in an area where society seems to care, people take pride in their homes and their surroundings this will lead to the child growing up with confidence as they won??™t wont be afraid to leave the house and discover their environment, their communicational, and social skills will flourish as they will interact with friends and neighbours.Respond to concerns about child & young person developmentIt is extremely important to recognise and respond to concerns about children??™s development because if it is left untreated things may get a lot worse, if there is a delay in treatment the outcome may not be as good as it would be if treatment started earlier. * If a child does not talk or only speaks a few words compared to other children it may be a cause for concern. This would affect the child socially as they would find it hard to make friends; their communication would be hindered because they would not be able to interact with people. The problem may lie with the child??™s hearing. * If a child is constantly on his own in the play ground and has no desire to interact with others and seems to shy away when spoken to. It may be a fact that he is being bullied and thinks that all people will be the same, This will seriously damage the child??™s confidence causing him social problems in the future, they may be affected intellectually because he will not feel comfortable in class therefore may not want to learn * If a child has poor reading and writing skills it may cause concern because they will start to fall behind their peers they may find it difficult to interact or make friends with others who are more advanced, in case they are bullied etc. They would struggle with their intellectual development and concentration…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..Transitions experienced by most children and young people * Birth
* From milk to solids
* Crawling to walking
* Being fed to feeding yourself
* Nursery to school
* School to secondary
* Puberty
* adulthood * * Parents separating / divorcing
* Changing home / school
* Introduction of stepparent /new partner
* Serious illness
* Serious accident
* Death of a family member……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..How transitions affect children??™s behaviour and developmentBeing fed to feeding yourself:
When a child starts to feed itself it may cause a mess, the parent might become annoyed and shout at the child, this can cause the child emotional distress and harm their confidence the child might stop trying to feed themselves which harms their development and motor skills Starting nursery:
Where children are not used to leaving their parents, separation can be a very upsetting and confidence shattering experience. toilet using children may begin to wet the bed, be aggressive where usually amenable and may begin experience anxiety issues – not wanting to go out, becoming fearful of separation become clingy, help children through this difficult time by reassuring the child that its ok to be upset at leaving their parent/carer, you know how much they love them, that you also have fun activities planned and would they like to join in.Puberty:
Puberty can be a very complicated and confusing time for most young people. They sometimes worry about whether the changes in their bodies are normal, especially if they develop earlier, or at a different rate from their friends and they may become self conscious. A 16 year boy may find it embarrassing to change in front of his friends because he might have started to grow hair or he might not have matured as quickly as others, he may feel frustrated this can lead to behavioral problems.
All of a sudden a young girl has a new body shape and size she can begin to feel self-conscious about how she looks. It can be difficult to cope with early physical changes, or it can be frustrating waiting for physical changes. Bereavement:
The loss of a loved one, a family member or even the death of a famous person can cause a lot of emotions in a child. They may be fearful about what is going to happen to them and scared that they might die next. They may feel confused about what has happened and why it is happened. They could feel guilty that they are still alive or blame themselves in some way for the loss. They may feel sadness and grief or even anger about the loss. These emotions can turn into behavioural changes as they can have an effect on the Childs sense of security. An outgoing child may become quiet and withdrawn, a child may stop eating, and they may be unable to sleep, or become aggressive. They may need help and support to understand what has happened and learn to accept the change. ?  Development pattern for Birth to 19years0-3mts
Social:
Cries to communicate needs to others, stops crying to listen to a rattle, responds to smiles
Physical:
Sleeps much of the time, tries to lift head, begins to hold objects when placed in hand, starts to wave arms and kick legs movements gradually gets smoother.
Intellectual:
Recognises parents, Explores by putting objects in mouth, observes objects that move, responds to bright colours
Communication:
Recognises familiar voices, stops crying when they hear them, aware of other sounds turns head in direction of noise. Makes noises as well as crying e.g. babbling
Emotional:
Becomes very attached to parent, requires the security of routine, may be upset by unfamiliar handling and care
Behavioural:
Will cry to get attention3-9mts
Social:
Responds positively to others by 9mts is aware of strangers, makes conversation like noises
Physical:
Gains head control, learns to pull itself up to a sitting position, can put objects into containers and take them out
Intellectual:
Shows interest in everything especially books and toys, knows people and recognises familiar objects, explores environment once mobile
Emotional:
Develops attachments with people they see regularly, demonstrates emotions through body language and facial expressions
Communication:
Responds to smiles can participate in simple games, will make babbling noises
Behavioural:
Expresses emotions through gurgling becomes more settled with cuddles1-2yrs
Social:
Plays confidently beside other kids, gets upset when mum gives attention to others
Physical:
Can pick up small objects, can tackle obstacles and stairs
Intellectual:
Motor skill gets sharper can turn pages in a book can build a tower with 6 blocks
Emotional:
Cries when handled by strangers feels lost when mum leaves the room can find sharing difficultCommunication:
Listens when spoken to, can follow simple requests and copy simple sounds
Behavioural:
Will cry when not happy to do something and are easily distracted, have a short attention span3-4yrs
Social:
Will share and play with others or will happily play alone
Physical:
Can use scissors walk on tip toes and steer a bicycle
Intellectual:
Can hold a pencil properly and draw people with basic body parts
Emotional:
Laugh at something funny, begin to show understanding if past and present
Communication:
Will be able to have a conversation say nursery rhymes and sing songs
Behavioural:
Begin to show off, have a fear of the dark and have a vivid imagination5-7yrs
Social:
Shares well with lots of play and lots of imagination
Physical:
Skilled with construction toys can construct puzzles, can hop on one foot , play ball games and dance
Intellectual:
Can get dressed and undressed by themselves, now adds detail to pictures
Emotional:
Will defend and care for younger siblings and are better able to control their behaviour
Communication:
Enjoys stories and will use them in play, conversation becomes easier
Behavioural:
Becomes more independent and less frustrated, begin to demonstrate anger vocally e.g. I hate you8-12yrs
Social:
Become more independent from their family, Will have a stronger sense of right and wrong and have a growing desire to be liked and accepted.
Physical:
Significant differences between children??™s appearances due to life style, nutrition and normal development. Puberty for some can start
Intellectual:
Rapid development of mental skills will have the ability to talk about their emotions, and learns to plan ahead
Emotional:
Can give support in times of distress; begin to see things from another point of view
Communication:
Will now be able to hold adult conversations and reading and writing become more articulatedBehavioural:
Join clubs, some can be easily led by their peers as they want to be accepted by them13-16yrs
Social:
Begin to form an identity through clothes and music, they may select other adults and not family members as role models, and have been known to push their boundaries
Physical:
They have a rapid muscular growth; think it??™s important to maintain their strength and fitness
Intellectual:
Begin to question family and school rules, believe nothing bad can happen to them and take more risks
Emotional:
May act up because they are unable to express their feelings, find it hard to speak to their parents
Communication:
Maybe reluctant to talk to adults, spend more time with friends, conversation and communication done via phone and computer
Behavioural:
Experiences highs and lows caused by hormonal changes, will tend to avoid family activities and demand privacy16-19yrs
Social:
They will have limited life experiences but believe they know it all; Peer pressure will decline in importance,
Will be aware of and may have had sex
Physical:
Their growth spurt peaks,
Intellectual:
Their thinking becomes more self conscious, idealistic and they are able to reason
Emotional:
They may feel mis-understood, unable to speak to the opposite sex, and prone to mood swings
Communication:
Slang may have more meaning than formal language,
Behavioural:
They don??™t consider all the consequences of their acts or words, they may have conflict with their parents, have a full range of sexual behaviour.

Construct and Support Argument

Construct and Support Argument-MBA Decision
Michelle L. Jackson
University of Phoenix
MGT
521
Lester Reams JD, DPA
July 25, 2010Construct and Support Argument-MBA Decision
Communication is a vital component in your professional and personal lives. People have various means to communicate to one another. Communication begins with one person as the sender and the other person is the receiver. ?  In order for communication to properly begin, a purpose, expressed as a message conveyed is needed. ?  It passes between a sender and a receiver (Robbins, Judge, 2007, p. 369). Insight and understanding how the audience perceives it, is information that can help us to create our message in a way that will be easily understood by the audience.
In this paper I will discuss how the decision to pursue an MBA degree was made and what the results of the Jungian Personality self-assessment indicated.
?  ?  ?  May 19th of 2010 I completed my degree in BSB/M. As an employee of University of Phoenix I counsel many students to help them determine what plans his or her degree can help in current or future jobs, and if pursuing an MBA is an option. I know found myself faced with the same challenge. I had been going strong without any extended breaks in my undergrad program and was a little tired of being a student. However, I knew if I wished to maintain a competitive edge in the job market an MBA was a must! To move to the next level in my organization or any organization securing an MBA would allow me flexibility and negotiating power for salary.
As I began to develop a career plan, personal growth assessment, and goals I decided to avoid a lengthy break but resume going to school. Time was not on my side, as a middle-age, African American woman acquiring an MBA could provide me the opportunity to secure a position that would provide me with the financial freedom in our hostile economy. I have the experience in counseling students, the drive, and knowledge for a managerial position. Obtaining a MBA can sharpen my managerial skills and provide additional critical thinking skills that are needed to be successful in a leadership role. ???The MBA can assist a person in acquiring an array of management tools and in learning theories that will lead to effective management. It will also give a broad exposure to the business world in the terms of job functions and industries. And often, if the program is chosen well, the MBA will open many doors in the business world, since companies often use the MBA to screen top candidates for their best and most demanding management careers??? (Levy, 2010, Pursuing an MBA, para 1). ? 
Jungian Self-Assessment
Personality tests is a tool that is sometimes used by employers to provide additional information on an individual??™s behavior, style of learning or communicating. Personality tests should not be used as the determining factor because people can develop new skills, adjust to an environment that was foreign initially causing a poor results when the personality test was given. It is this reason that personality tests provide a snap shot and has no relevance to the future of the individual. According to one author ???In this respect, personality assessments capture only a fragment of the whole, and will not be accurate over a period of time. For some highly skilled and technical professions, an applicants training and experience may have a greater impact on job performance than personality, and so although an applicant may not appear to be suitable, he or she may be more so than a candidate with apparently appropriate characteristics???(Construct and Support, 2008).
The Jungian personality self-assessment is a tool that can be used for an individual to identify with his or herself. The assessment provides insight to 16 various personality types. The objective of the personality self-assessment is to evaluate individuals??™ critical thinking style, ways that an individual handles data that is received and how an individual may interact in group setting. This is useful for potential managers. Upon completion of the personality test, my personality type was determined as a type A-. I scored 111. The results were accurate to how I was feeling at the moment I was answering the questions. I am a multi-task at work and home. I tend to take on various projects, I eat fast, but I walk at a nice pace. I enjoy working in team depending on the task. Type A??™s tend to interrupt others often because of their impatience, which I catch myself often doing. I disagree with being obsessed with numbers and measurements. The test ???How Well Do You Handle Ambiguity??? I scored 30. The range of 19-35 is typical of most individual. I can see this as being a very valuable to considering hiring someone. Today??™s workforce requires a person to be flexible and tolerance of change. I worked many years in the airlines industry which is known for continuous changes in policies and procedures. I believe working in this environment allowed me to develop a high tolerance for ambiguity. If your results fell below the norm, use this information to seek career options that are more suited towards your personality trait.
Conclusion
Many people wonder what the importance of earning a degree is; continuing his or her education to pursue a higher degree worth the time and money. The reason may vary from person to person, however when I made the decision to continue my education I took several factors into consideration. I thought about retirement, job satisfaction, and how long it would take to get me there. I believe earning an MBA will assist me in reaching those goals, and be positive role model to my family, friends, and children. Earning an MBA is not an easy task and I welcome the challenge. I am excited to learn more skills, gain knowledge in the business world, and expand my possibility of careers.
References
Robbins, S. P. (n.d.). Self-Assessment. Retrieved from http://ecampus.phoenix.edu/materials
Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2007). Communication. In Organizational Behavior (pp. 369). NJ: Prentice Hall Inc.

How Did Wwii Change America and the World

Name
Institution
Course
Instructor
July 15, 2010
How did WWII change America and the World
The World War II remains the bloodiest and deadliest crisis in world history. It involved the best ever battle lines, enormous armed forces, along with the most destructive weapons in the history of the world (Martel 245). The worldwide disagreement that was regarded as or labelled World War II emanated from the 1930s great depression, a turmoil that undermined, destabilized and weakened economies, governments??™ and nations around the world. For instance, in Germany, the rise of Hitler occurred partially because he alleged to be capable of transforming a destabilized Germany by then to an autonomous economic and military power that could control its destiny not only in Europe, but in the world as well (Martel 240). This paper therefore explores how this global conflict (WWII) changed America and the entire world.
For US, World War II constituted the most significant fiscal event of the 20th century (Higgs 53). The war??™s consequences on the United States were diverse and far-reaching. It indomitably ended the great depression, and the US federal government came out from the war as a possible economic actor, capable of regulating fiscal activity and to partly control the world economy via spending and consumption. What??™s more, the wartime economic explosion spurred and promoted a number of social trends. First was the job creation that paralleled the growth of industrial production, in so doing, attained what Roosevelt??™s New Deal programs had been incapable to achieve (Rindfuss, Morgan & Swicegood 86). According to Higgs (58), in 1940, there were more than eight million unemployed Americans. However, by 1941, unemployment became a thing of the past. There were in fact labour shortages in numerous industries. Consequently, federal inspectors did ignore laws deterring employment of women and children (Martel 250). With little or no public outcry, several high school dropouts escalated substantially. Also, several women were absorbed in the workforce to assist make implements and munitions of war. These women were later nicknamed ???Rosie the Riveter??™ and were pivotal part of the US success in war (Martel 251).
Additionally, the WWII revitalized American industries, and lot of sectors were by the end of the war (1945) either brusquely oriented to defence production (for instance, electronics and aerospace) or entirely dependent on atomic energy (Rindfuss, Morgan & Swicegood 82). The organised labour unions were as well strengthened far beyond depression-period and became key counterbalance to both private and government industry. Given the fact that novel employment took place in unionized workplaces, plus industries funded by the American government, the continuance of membership decision during World War II was a magnificent advantage for organized labour (Rindfuss, Morgan & Swicegood 84). As a result, organized labour increased from ten million in 1941 to approximately fifteen million by 1945. Also, about thirty six percent of workforces in non-agricultural sector were unionized, recording the highest ever percent in American history. Similarly, the war??™s speedy technological and scientific changes continued and deepened trends commenced during the great depression and shaped lasting anticipation of continued novelty on the part of several engineers, citizens and government officials. Besides, the significant increases in individual income as well as quality of life throughout the war resulted in a number of Americans foreseeing permanent improvements to their material needs (Rindfuss, Morgan & Swicegood 85).
That said, the World War II brought to an end the godless Nazi regime plus their murder machine. It as well wrecked Japan??™s control over Pacific, thereby ushering in the atomic age (Martel 255). Europe that had been under authoritarian Nazi boot became under the Communist boot. Besides, the war led to medicine improvements in the world, particularly in the use of antibiotics. New-fangled forms of occupational and physical therapy to assist returning veterans and wounded soldiers were as well invented and used. What??™s more, the work of individuals, such as von Braun in the Second World War greatly transformed world technology, especially rocket technology, which became a major focus during Cold War (Neufeld 164).
The dramatic transformations in military technology resulted in changes to operational and tactical skills. Stanovov (1) asserted that all contemporary warfare grew from the concepts which first came from 1939-1945. The actions of pooled units, close relations of dissimilar armed services, the greatly escalated significance of radio-electronic warfare, strategic bombings, psychological and mass information warfare, to mention just some factors. The World War II became in fact total in psychological, technical and informational senses, radically transforming the prerequisites to logistical support. Moreover, it spectacularly changed balance between small and large economies in the world platform. Whilst previously the disparity between the armed forces of a small and large country was largely quantitative, with WW2 it became qualitative, as a few nations in the world could manage to create fully-fledged nuclear-era armed forces (Stanovov 1).
Finally, every great conflict, especially concerning great allies and axis, brings something unique to the art of warfare. But Second World War was outstanding in that respect. The changes in the hardware, equipment, structure and the way military forces were utilized were unique both in their significance and scope. Even WWI that first witnessed major use of war tanks, submarines and planes had never brought to fore such massive change to the world.Works Cited
Higgs, Robert. “Wartime Prosperity A reassessment of U.S. Economy in 1940s. Economic History Journal, 52(1), 41-60, 1992
Martel, Gordon. The World War Two Reader, New York, Routledge, 2004
Neufeld, Michael. Von Braun; dreamer of space, engineer of war. New York; Vintage, 2008.
Rindfuss, Ronald., Morgan, Philip., & Swicegood, Gray. First births in America; changes of parenthood. London; California University Press, 1988.
Stanovov, Alexander. WWII; the war that changed the world, May 05, 2010. Retrieved July 14, 2010 from http://en.rian.ru/analysis/20100505/158882709.html.