Construction

Construction
BASIX
* The Building Sustainability Index (BASIX)
* BASIX is implemented under the Environmental Planning and Assessment ACT
* BASIX aim to reduce water and energy consumption in homes across NSW
Construction basics
* ACT- general laws
* BCA- building code Australia
* NCC- National Construction Code
* Standards is the bare minimum e.g. 40mm concrete cover
* SWMS- Safe Work Method Statement (steps to complete talks safetly
OH&S
* WHS: Workplace Health and Safety
* Risk: The probability that a person will be harmed or experience an adverse health effect if exposed to a hazard.
* Hazard: Anything that has the potential to harm a person.
* Hazard Categories:
* Acute Hazard: A hazard where short term exposure causes an injury or sickness (Burns, Cuts, etc.)
* Chronic Hazard: A hazard where long term exposure causes an injury or illness (Respiratory, Cancer, etc.) * Correct Lifting technique:
1. Size up load
2. Position Feet
3. Obtain good grip
4. Knees bent and back straight
5. Head up and Chin in
6. Keep arms in * Main Types of Hazards :
* Physical (Noise, Vibration, Manual Labor)
* Chemical (Gas, Vapor, Dust, Fumes)
* Biological (Insect/Animals, Fungi)
* Risk Control:
7. Elimination
8. Substitution
9. Isolation
10. Engineering Controls
11. Admin Controls
12. PPE * PPE (Personal Protective Equipment): Last line of defense
* WMS (Work Method Statement): Contains the steps to perform a task properly and safely (it usually contains the potential risks of the task that has been assessed and categorized)
* MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) Contains composition and name of the chemical and also gives safe use and first aid.
Fire safety
* Fire requires heat fuel and oxygen
* Class A: combustible solids e.g. Paper, plastics, clothing
* Class B: Flammable liquids e.g. Fuel, Paint, Thinners
* Class C: Flammable gases e.g. LPG, Methane, Butane
* Class E: Electrical e.g. Switchboard overload, electronic motorsMeasurements, Calculations and Drawings * 50 bricks in 1m2
* 10% wastage factor: multiply answer by 1.1
* Pictorial drawings give a visual representation of the final product
* Two types of pictorial: Isometric projection and Perspective view
* Orthographic Drawing: A working drawing that consists of 3 related views and includes details like scale and dimension.
* Most Common Drawings builders use (Working Drawings) 1. Floor Plans (1:100)
2. Site Plans (1:200)
3. Section (1:10)
4. Scale
5. Elevation (1:100) * Title Block: Contains owners name, lot number, street name, suburbs and scale etc.
* Specification: A precise list of all construction and finishing organized by trade.
Leveling
* Leveling: The determination and representation of elevation points from an unknown datum. Measuring the differences in elevation.
* Level Line: A line that is parallel to the surface of still water.
* Plumb: Any vertical line that would line up with the center of the earth. This can be determined with a Plumb bob (weight attached to a string).
* Datum: Any known point which a level line can be transferred to another position
* String Line (Brick layer line) strong taught lines that give an accurate level.Building Terms * DAR: dressed all round
* CCA: coper, chromium, arsenic salts
* DOS: dressed one side
* D1S1E: dressed one side and one edgeManufactured Boards
* Particle boards (chip board)
* Fibreboard (MDF)
* Hardboard (Masonite)
* Plywood
Safety signs
Mandatory | | Must do signs |
Prohibited | | Don??™t do signs |
Hazard | | Warning |
Danger | | Warning (more serious) |
Emergency | | First aid, Exits etc |Specialist Trade requires Certificate IV
* Crane Operator
* Building Manager
* Heritage Restoring Building Safety standards
Is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for constructed objects.
* As 1670 (fire detection)
* As 1720 Timber grades
* AS 1684 (TIMBER FRAME CONSTRUCTION)Brick and Block
Tools??¦ Refer to bookCommunication
* Formal meetings: UNION meeting, OHS and Induction
* Informal meetings: tools box meeting

How Do Mental Images Improve Memory

In this essay i will look at how mental images will help improve memory. Mental images or iconic thought , is your minds way of forming and thinking in pictures, you use mental picture in everyday life evens when recalling what someone looks like the use of mental pictures can be very effective. We use mental images to help process information we take into our brains. For example, when reading a book, we use a mental image of what we think the characters look like. By generating a mental image, we are actually helping the information to stay in our memories for longer, therefore making recall easier and quicker. Mental images play an important role in our memory. Sometimes we tend to learn or remember written or verbal information better if we create a mental image. The process of creating a mental image helps the image stay in your mind due to the effort it has took to create the image. The mental image sometimes acts like a cue in helping you to remember something. The image will often come to your mind before the words do. In starting with psychology (2010) Michael Raugh and Richard Atkinson (1975) developed an idea called the key word technique by which you take a word ,for example ???poubelle??? (pronounced pooh-bell) this is the French word for bin in English and form a large bizarre mental picture, broken down into English the French word ???poubelle??? would be the equivalent of pooh and bell, this is classed as your key word because it is the English word or words, that sounds like the French word you are learning . You then form a mental picture from the English translation you have made, picture a bin in the shape of a bell and when lifting the lid holding your nose because of the pooh smell. Raugh and Atkinson (1975) tried and tested this out on a group of participants which were asked to learn a list of 60 Spanish words, half the participants were taught the key word technique and the other half the controlled group were not. Later when asked to recall those words the key word group managed to recall 88% of words compared to only 28% of the controlled group that did not learn the key word technique. This results in showing that the use of mental images can help aid us to improve our memory.

Construction

General Information:|Programme Title & Level: |Construction and the Built Environment ??“ Level 4 |
|Unit Number and Title: |Unit 28: IT Applications for Construction |Unit |Y/601/1292 |
| | |Code: | |
|Assessment |Assignment No. 2 |
|Title: | |
|Handout |23rd Feb 12 |Submission Date: |15th March 12 |
|Date: | | | |
|Learning Outcomes: |LO3 |Assessment Criteria: |3.1, 3.2, 3.3 & 3.4 |Assessment Tasks[Input required tasks, ensuring that the appropriate assessment criteria are indicated]Tasks 1. From the information obtained in other assignment work (Project) produce a complex document to meet the criteria set out in Learning Outcome No. 3.
Outcomes and Grading|To obtain an interim PASS grade you must met the following assessment criteria: |
|3.1 |Produce programmed workbooks to facilitate the input of various input parameters for differing scenarios |
|3.2 |Enter new input data to programmed spreadsheets to determine results for new scenarios |
|3.3 |Use relevant formula, functions and tools to produce input data for differing scenarios |
|3.4 |Present data illustrating results from the analysis of input data |
|To obtain an interim MERIT grade you must also achieve the following grade descriptors: |
| |An effect approach and planning has enabled you to submit your work on time to meet the set agenda. |
|M1 | |
| |The presentation and layout style is appropriate in terms of its structure and approach for your presentation. You have used |
|M2 |appropriate technical language throughout your document. |
| |With the information and data collected in your research you have been able to synthesis and process this into a clear and |
|M3 |presentable form. A range of resources have been effectively used throughout the assignment including: – Internet, textbooks, |
| |journal articles, personal opinions etc. References have been included where appropriate using the Harvard system. ||To obtain an interim DISTINCTION grade you must also achieve the following grade descriptors: |
| |Relevant conclusions relating to the benefits of commercial software have been arrived at through content of information and data |
|D1 |received. |
| |All activities within this assignment have been managed effectively and this includes time management to ensure work is submitted |
|D2 |on time. There is evidence of self evaluation. |
| |Innovation and creative thought have taken place within your report and presentation of it. You have been able to reflect upon |
|D3 |peer feedback and build this effectively into your self evaluation. |
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How Do Managers Enforce Ethics

How do managers enforce ethics Education has changed immensely over the years This especially came to the forefront with the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act on January 2, 2002. The NCLB has a notable and honorable goal; to improve the quality of the American educational system by establishing high standards and accountability for the learning of all children. Prior to the NCLB Act, the state government oversaw the effectiveness of their schools, including parental involvement, yearly progress and teacher quality, but the guidelines became the job of the Federal Government with the passing of the No Child Left Behind Act.
Ocean View School district considers that maintaining and enforcing ethics in the school system a number one priority. Everyone knows that children??™s minds are like sponges they absorb everything that they see and do. By having a school that upholds the highest moral and ethical behaviors from every employee as well as board members we are showing not only the students and faculty but the community as well. The Ocean View School District will not tolerate any unethical or any unmoral behavior on the parts of the students, faculty, management and or the board members. Ocean View School District??™s codes of ethics are strictly enforced. The code of ethics that the Ocean View School district has implemented were not created to hinder our teachers but rather to give them a guideline to work with.
According to the Association of American Educators ???we believe all educators are obligated to help foster civic virtues such as integrity, diligence, responsibility, cooperation, loyalty, fidelity, and respect-for the law, for human life, for others, and for self.???How are ethics enforced by the organization How is unethical behavior dealt with The students as well as faculty, staff, and board members will learn through their own code of ethics that their moral and ethical behaviors as well have consequences. At the beginning of the school year all students and faculty throughout the Ocean View school district will copy of the student??™s rights and responsibilities as well as the school??™s code of ethics. To get the parents on board, ocean View school district has implemented a policy where on the first day of school the student??™s rights and responsibilities form is sent home and the parent and or parent and child in the high schools both sign this form. This will notify both the students, parents, and the teachers that plagiarism for example will not be tolerated at all in the school district.. Teachers are reminded that they are looked up to by the children as role models.
The Ocean View School district will enforce their code of ethics. Each employee as well as board member and elected official will be held to the upmost integrity. Ocean View School district knows that there are times where moral and ethical issues come into play. Instead of just sweeping these issues under the rug, Ocean View will take every situation seriously. For example, harassment of any type will not be tolerated. If a student or teacher files a complaint that he or she is being harassed an immediate investigation will begin. If it is found that a teacher is committing an unethical behavior for example drinking on school property , this teacher will be spoken to and proper action will be implemented. In his book, Faith That Works, Larry Ruddell says that, the first step in solving an ethical problem at the workplace is to realize that an ethical standard has been violated. This means that executives and managers must be constantly aware of what is going on within the organization and cannot ignore a violation in company policy regardless of who committed it. The following seven steps will be followed at the Ocean View School District in regards to enforcing ethics and dealing with unethical behavior. The first step in solving an ethical problem at the workplace is to realize that an ethical standard has been violated . The second step is to identify all of those who have been affected by the ethical violation, the third step . is to interview each participant to gather relevant information regarding the ethical violation. The fourth is to analyze the data, the fifth is to make a decision that goes along with the preset ethical standards and policies. the fifth is that once a decision. the sixth is once a decision has been made it must be implemented and finally. in solving an ethical problem is to discuss the lessons learned from the ordeal. The most profitable result of a policy violation is to use it to improve the ethics program and make the organization stronger.

Construction Methodology

Construction Methodology for Pre-Cast Reinforced Concrete Girder Bridge
SCOPEThis methodology relates to the construction of foundations and superstructures for a pre-cast reinforced concrete girder type bridge.The scope of works comprises the construction of two abutments, five piers, two lanes deck slab, approach slabs and grouted riprap slope protection.GENERAL APPROACH At the initial stage, significant number of manpower, field personnel and sufficient materials and equipment will be deployed at site. Detour roads will be constructed before starting the bridge construction. Detour signs and warning materials and equipment will be provided for the safety purpose of the public motorists, pedestrians as well as construction equipment and workers. Within the right of way limit, the area will be cleared of obstruction and other unnecessary objects. Material designated to be removed shall be disposed of at places designated and or approved by the authority. Facilities which are designated to remain will be protected from damage. The main construction of bridge will follow after benchmarks and centerlines had been established and approved by the consultant??™s representative. The consultant???s representative will be notified with sufficient time in advance before commencing any excavation of structure. Foundation footing will be excavated using suitable excavation equipment and trimmed to the required outlines and elevation. Backfill placed around piers and abutments will be deposited on both sides at approximately same elevation to prevent wedging against the structure. The materials shall be placed in layer and compacted by suitable compaction machine to the required density. After structural excavation and blinding concrete had been undertaken and approved, placing of reinforcing steel in accordance with the required number, spacing and location will be started immediately. Concrete covering will be maintained as per type of structure according to specification. The reinforcingsteel shall be free from dirt, oil and detrimental scales. It shall be accurately placed and secured during placing of concrete.
Falseworks shall be assembled and erected on site by competent skilled workers. False work columns shall be supported by wood or metal bases. It shall not be supported on any part of the structure. Forms shall be mortar??“tight and rigid to prevent distortion due to concrete pressure and vibration. They will be checked before, during , and after placing of concrete. Concreting of structure will commence after all necessary parameters have been checked and approved by the consultant??™s representative. Sequence and method of pouring concrete will be formulated and implemented according to site condition. The forms shall be clean before concrete is placed. During placing of concrete , all necessary care in handling will be taken to avoid segregation of aggregates and displacement of reinforcing bars. External surface of concrete will be worked thoroughly to avoid air pockets and honeycombs. Concrete shall be deposited in horizontal layer in fast and continuous manner. Forms will remain in placed at specified period of time. All top surfaces such as top of retaining wall, curb, abutment, etc., will be treated by tamping and floating with a wooden float. Bridge deck on wearing surface will be floated, straight- edged and belted until finished surface is in conformity with the cross section shown on plans. Concrete will be cured for a period of time required. The method, materials, and equipment for curing is per approval of the consultant??™s representative. Additional burlap, straw or other suitable blanketing and housing materials will be provided in case temperature of air drop or rise at critical temperature. Risers will be checked for correct elevation, orientation and location prior to placing of elastomeric bearing pad. Bearing pads will be maintained in correct position during placing of girders. Construction Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer??™s recommendation with suitable materials and tools recommended by them. The position of all bolts cast into concrete and holes drilled in plates shall be accurately determined from templates. Threads will be kept clean free from dusts and relative movement will be prevented during placing and hardening of concrete or mortar under joints. Slope protection will be constructed following the required lines, grades, thickness and cross section. Sub-grade or base will be compacted to the required density after excavation and trimming of bed and footing trench. Placing of stones and concrete will be started after all excavations and footing trenches had been approved by the consultant??™s representative. Stones will be placed in a manner that spaces between them are minimal. Larger stones will be placed in the footing trench and on the outside surface of the slope. For grouted riprap, all spaces between stones will be filled with concrete mortar and rodded into place until the voids are completely filled. Front face of riprap will be spaded and clean before concrete hardened. Curing will follow immediately after completion of grouting process.REFERENCE DRAWING ??? General Plan and Specification ??? Bridge Alignment ??? Plan and Profile ??? Cross Section and ElevationCONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES WILL INCLUDE: ??? Site establishment including offices and services. ??? Ground preparation for the casting yard of pre-cast concrete girder. ??? Ground preparation for the excavation of footings foundation. ??? Construction of temporary fences and access gates. ??? Construction of temporary environmental protection works, including storm water management and truck wheel and concrete mixer washing facilities. ??? Construction of temporary structures required for launching of pre-cast girder ??? Relocation or construction of protection works of existing services likely to be affected by the launching operations.
CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE AND METHODS
Upon setting and approval of required elevation, centerlines and limits, the construction of each structure will follow.
A. Substructure 1. Foundation Works
??? Excavation using backhoes in supervision of a competent supervisor to monitor the depth and width of excavation to prevent any overshoot in dimensions and to ensure that the footing bed is undisturbed prior to placing of concrete.
??? Trimming to desired width and depth manually using light equipment and tools.
??? Removal of loose materials
??? Disposal of excavated materials to designated and approved area.
??? Placing of lean concrete using approved concrete chutes or by concrete pump. Using lightweight crane and bucket is also an option.
??? Concreting of footing s using concrete pump in fast and steady manner to ensure consistency of concrete poured.
??? Curing using burlap and water or approved curing compound.
??? Application of bituminous paint to footing for waterproofing
??? Backfilling and compaction by layer using portable compaction machine. A field density test will be conducted in every layer and must be subsequently approved. 2. Columns / Pedestal
??? Fabrication of column forms corresponding the true diameter of columns based on plan dimension. Column forms will be checked for roundness, and dimensions ( based on column heights) . Dried concrete will be removed from the inside and form oil will be applied prior to installation.
??? Installation of reinforcing steel bars based on required spacing, numbers and positions.
??? Erection / aligning of column forms using lightweight crane for lifting. Columns wilLbe checked for plumbness on all sides and fixed securely to avoid any movement during placing of concrete.
??? Concreting by concrete pump.
??? Curing and Removal of forms.
??? Surface finishing
3. Cap Beams / Pier Head / Wingwall / Backwall / Corbel/Risers
??? Ground base will be compacted and leveled prior to placing of wooden or metal bases for scaffoldings.
??? Erection of false works by experienced scaffolders ( checking consistently for tower plumbness and rigidity.)
??? Installation of reinforcing steel bars
??? Installation of forms and chamfers
??? Concreting using concrete pumps
??? Curing and removal of forms
??? Surface finishing
B. Superstructure 1. Launching of Pre-Cast Girder
??? Additional structure / embankment will be needed to ensure flat surface and ground stability for the positioning of cranes.
??? The launching operation will be supplemented by two 90 tons crane or a 150 ton cranes if only one crane will be utilized. An auxiliary crane and suitable transport equipment will also be utilized for transporting of pre-cast girder from casting yard to launching area.
??? Erection / placing of girder to final position will be done by skilled personnel under a qualified supervisor.
??? Concreting of diaphragms. 2. Deck Slab
??? Installation of pouring guide/rails to provide the required crown and grade.
??? Placing of concrete in consistent and steady manner to ensure smooth workmanship.
??? The screed will be operated from a position transverse to the bridge roadway centerline.
??? The surface will be floated and straight edged until the finished surface is in conformity with cross section of shown on plans.
??? After the water sheen has disappear visually, the brooming operation shall be drawn transversely across the surface with adjacent stroke overlapping slightly.
??? Approved working platform or bridges not touching the surface will be provided for brooming operation.
??? Curbs, sidewalks, and parapet will be rubbed surface finish.Concrete will be cured for a period of time required to obtain the full specified strength.C. Slope ProtectionExcavation and trimming of riprap bed and footing trench ??? Placing of stones
??? Grouting
??? Surface finishing
SAFETY GUIDELINES The contractor will ensure that activities on site is carried out in safe and healthy manner as much as possible to avoid or minimize the risks of injury to its employees and any other persons who could possibly be affected. ??? All site personnel will wear suitable Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
while on site.
Minimum Requirements ;
1. Hard Hat
2. High Visibility Vest
3. Safety Shoes Additional Safety Gears : 1. Harnesses and Lanyards
2. Gloves
3. Safety Goggles
4. Hearing Protection
5. Gas and Dust Masks ??? All waste materials, hazardous materials and rubbish will be disposed of immediately in accordance with environmental requirements of the surrounding municipality.
??? Fire precautions will be implemented strictly. Open fire will not be permitted on site and an adequate supply of water for fire fighting purposes and suitable fire extinguishers will be provided and maintained at all times. Escape route sign will be posted on every possible exits. ??? All visitors and/or delivery drivers will be required to report on site office upon arrival. Delivery drivers must remain inside or immediately near their vehicles. ??? Only trained and authorized persons are allowed to operate plant and machineries. All plant/machinery will be switch off when not in use. Electrical safety guidelines and warnings will be posted near electrical equipment and machineries. ??? No Smoking areas will be implemented and strict compliance will be enforced. Alcohols and other prohibited substances will be immediately reported to law enforcing authority. ??? Entering confined spaces will not be permitted unless a permit to enter has been approved. Only authorized persons with suitable PPE??™s may enter. Proper ventilating equipment and /or suitable blower will be installed before allowing any persons to enter. ??? Excavations will be immediately backfilled after completion of works . Effective barriers and edge protection will be installed around excavation pit to keep unauthorized persons away from the perimeter. Proper shoring and supports will be installed around deep excavations. ??? Safety nets will be provided for overhead construction and guard rails will be installed on all scaffold platforms. Scaffolding works will be prohibited during strong winds. ??? Construction equipment especially cranes and associated rigging equipment must be inspected regularly to identify any existing potentially unsafe conditions. Location and voltage of existing overhead and underground power lines and utilities must be identified to determine precautions. Supporting surface must be level as much as possible and firm.

How Do Epistemological Beliefs Affect Ones Ethical Views

How do epistemological beliefs affect one??™s ethical viewsIf you are an empiricist then you only believe something is true/real if it can be sensed through the five senses. ???If you cannot sense it, you cannot know it.??? Therefore, an empiricist would say that morals do not exist because they cannot be sensed. If abortion or gay marriage is wrong, can you sense the wrongness No. Empiricist would argue that God does not exist. A rationalist would claim that the senses are not necessary to acquire knowledge. You can have reason alone to have knowledge. You can use your reasoning if you??™re a rationalist to determine whether an ethical issue is immoral/moral. A rationalist can look at an action in a photograph and determine through reasoning is it is good/evil or right/wrong. How do metaphysical beliefs affect one??™s ethical views
Realism is a metaphysical claim that the world is made up as parts and wholes. If you are a realist then you believe in physical and non physical things. This would affect your ethical views because you would believe in good and bad. According to a Natural law point of view, wrong isn??™t necessarily written down.
Naturalism is the view that everything exists is nothing more than physical parts and wholes. A naturalist does not believe that non physical things exist. If you were a naturalist goodness/wrongness isn??™t physical and it is just something a physical thing does. They would say that God does not exist and if there is no God than there are no rights. This can affect one??™s ethical views because they wouldn??™t believe in rights and morals.

Construction Management My Project

ABSTRACT
Indian Roads Congress stipulates requirement of planning the bridge by Critical Path Method. CPM though well developed and studied over the last half a century has limited suitability in various situations encountered in scheduling of work like Multi Span BridgeThe scheduling problem posed by multi span bridge has the characteristics of problem posed by repetitive unit construction however the repetitive units in this case of bridge may vary greatly in work from one unit to the other. The problem of repeated scheduling activities is not effectively addressed by CPM. When two activities are independent of each other CPM is practically incapable of scheduling the activities logically. Additional artificial constraints are required to schedule the activities which have constant production rate.Line of Balance and Linear Scheduling Method are well suited for activities with constant production rate, however these are not effective in addressing the problems where large number of activities with different production rate are dependent on each other as compared to CPM/PERT. Also these do not think of units with minor differences.A scheduling methodology developed for repetitive projects known as RSM has potential for using precedence diagram for repetitive projects attempting to provide advantages of both Line of Balance and CPM techniques. By introducing a concept of control points RSM takes care of both resource continuity constraint as well technical constraint. The use of this method for repetitive portion of multi span bridge can be looked into to provide an easier and efficient scheduling method for construction of multi span bridge.A study has been made by scheduling work packages of a sixteen span bridge using Repetitive scheduling method to find out the effectiveness of RSM and comparing with CPM and LoB. The method is more effective compared to CPM and LOB in scheduling the work packages and looks promising for use in different projects.

How Do Biomedical Model and Biopsychological Model Influence the Medical Practices and Public Health

Title: How do biomedical model and biopsychological model influence the medical practices and public health
Definition :
Biomedicine has been around since the middle of the nineteenth century as the major model used by health practitioners to detect diseases (Nettleton, 1995).This biomedical model of health have centred on how the human body functions and how diseases can be stopped, or healed through medical intervention(Taylor and field 2003). This model continues to be the bedrock in which foundation of health care system is based in the western societies, but there has being a lot of queries concerning its influence on the general pattern of health, since majority of health determinant are social and environmental. Arkinson (1988 p.180)claimed that the biomedical model, which has taken over the formal health care system in the West since the last two centuries view health along the reductionist approach. In this approach illness is said to be caused by injury or infections and there is neglect to the psychological, socio-economic and environmental influences (Taylor and field 2003).1
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The biopsychosocial approach is a way of looking at the treatment of patients. Doctors who apply this view of medicine see the patients psychological condition and social situation as integral parts of the individuals overall health. A man named George Engel developed the biopsychosocial theory of medicine during the 1970s, and he generally saw it as an alternative to the dominant biomedical approach, which was entirely focused on physical aspects of illness. The biopsychosocial approach isn??™t generally considered the norm, but many of the ideas have made an impact on medicine.2Engel eloquently states:
“To provide a basis for understanding the determinants of disease and arriving at a rational treatments and patterns of health care, a medical model must also take into account the patient, the social context in which he lives and the complementary system devised by society to deal with the disruptive effects of illness, that is, the physician role and the health care system. This requires a biopsychosocial model.”3
BioPsychoSocial Model of Health and Illness Venn Diagram
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The? biomedical? model is often contrasted with the? biopsychosocial model. Although the biomedical? model has remained the dominant? theory? in most places, many fields of medicine including nursing,? sociology, and? psychology? make use of the biopsychosocial model at times. In recent years, some medical professionals have also begun to adopt a biopsychosocial-spiritual model, insisting that spiritual factors must be considered as well.
Proponents of the biopsychosocial model argue that the? biomedical? model alone does not take into account all of the factors that have an impact on a patients health. Biological issues, as well as psychological factors such as a patients mood, intelligence, memory, and perceptions are all considered when making a diagnosis. The? biomedical? approach may not, for example, take into account the role sociological factors like family, social class, or a patients environment may have on causing a health condition, and thus offer little insight into how illness may be prevented. A patient who complains of symptoms that have no obvious objective cause might also be dismissed as not being ill, despite the very real affect those symptoms may have on the patients daily life.Many scholars in disability studies describe a medical model of disability that is part of the general? biomedical? approach. In this model, disability is an entirely physical occurrence, and being disabled is a negative that can only be made better if the disability is cured and the person is made “normal.” Many disability rights advocates reject this, and promote a social model in which disability is a difference ??” neither a good nor bad trait. Proponents of the social model see disability as a cultural construct. They point out that a how a person experiences his or her disability can vary based on environmental and societal changes, and that someone who is considered disabled can often be healthy and prosperous without the intervention of a professional or the disability being cured.Counseling is another field that often uses a more? holistic approach? to healing. Proponents of this framework note that, in the? biomedical? model, a patient looks to an expert for a specific diagnosis and treatment. Many counselors often try not to label patients with a specific condition, and instead help them recognize their strengths and build on their positive traits. The relationship is far more collaborative than in the? biomedical? model where a health care professional instructs a patient to follow medical orders so he or she can be cured. Biomedicine is characterized by narrow specialization and fragmentation. Physicians know more and more about less and less. The trend toward specialization in medical practice has strongly influenced medical educators to diminish the practical content of the crowded undergraduate program and transfer some of it to post-graduate or vocational training. A new graduate from medical school is therefore unable to treat a patient on his own until he becomes a specialist. Specialty practice however has the great disadvantage of fragmenting patient care among several specialists such that there is no one doctor to care for the whole patient. The fragmentation of medicine is reflected in the balkanization of administration (by department), stages of education (pre-medical, pre-clinical, and clinical) and by discipline or specialty. Separate curricular tracks for research and practice have even been suggested. In many cases each department teaches independently of others. Specialist physicians find it difficult to teach students who are just being introduced to medicine.4Trends of modern research in biology, biomedicine and drugs discovery7Modern biological and biomedical research in is driven by the 4M-model: By first formulating hypotheses in the form of a mathematical-statistical-computational Models (network, biochemical,??¦), via experimental design such as molecular genetics, cell engineering or sampling patients, (Manipulate), data are Measured (e.g. via high throughput technoloqies, imaging, biodevices, markers) and then, via computations and web searches Mined, to (in-) validate the original hypotheses. This leads to a new model and the cycle is repeated.
Nowadays in biological/biomedical research, one tries to explain complex phenotypes as the outcome of local interactions between numerous biological components, the activity of which might be spread temporally and spatially across several layers of scale, from atoms over molecules to tissues and organisms, and from genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics to metabolomics. Indeed, biological systems are inherently characterized by multiscale complexity, over several layers of complexity.Biomedical technology refers to the application of technological and engineering advances to medical science. Biomedical research has made strides in a number of fields, such as pharmaceuticals, creating? biopharmaceuticals, drugs produced by using biomedical technology that can treat a number of diseases.? Genetic testing? uses biotechnical methods to provide information about a person??™s genetic makeup.? Gene therapy, where faulty genes are replaced using biomedical technology, can help cure genetic diseases. Medical teaching and information management also utilize advances in? computer science.
Biopharmaceuticals are proteins or nucleic acids produced with biomedical technology. These types of drugs have been around since 1982, when biomedical engineers created synthetic insulin. Biopharmaceuticals can treat a variety of diseases, such as anemia, leukemia, multiple sclerosis, and some types of arthritis.
Genetic testing, another application of biomedical technology, can detect genetic diseases and mutations. Newborn screening is one of the most common genetic tests. Newborn screening uses biotechnical genetic testing techniques to test newborns for inherited disorders such as phenylketonuria, a disorder that can lead to mental illness if not treated.
When a person shows signs of a genetic disorder, diagnostic testing is used to determine if the cause is genetic. People who have a family history of a genetic disorder may also receive carrier testing to show if they are carrying faulty genes that could lead to the disease occurring in their children. Prenatal testing can detect genetic abnormalities such as Down??™s syndrome and inherited diseases.
Often there is no cure for genetic diseases because they are caused by mutations or problems in the genetic code. A new branch of biomedical technology called gene therapy allows doctors to actually inject a new, functional gene into a person??™s cells to replace a faulty gene. Researchers have used? bioengineering? to modify certain types of bacteria or viruses so they can carry the replacement gene into the cells.Biomedical? informatics? is another application of technology to medical problems. This branch of biomedical technology uses computer science to store and retrieve vital medical information in a virtual environment. For example, patient charts containing background and diagnostic information can be digitized, so a physician can simply pull them up on a computer for quick reference.
Biomedical technology has also been incorporated into medical teaching. Computer models are often used to demonstrate the functions of certain organs or show what the organs look like when they are diseased. Medical students can get experience working with virtual models before they treat an actual patient5
Tailored Assessment ApproachMany institutions and medical doctors have managed to incorporate a holistic view of health in sound medical application, primarily based on the Biopsychosocial (BPS) Model of Health and Illness. The concept of wellness is particularly stressed, where the state of being in good health based on the biopsychosocial model is accompanied by good quality of life and strong relationships.3
8Application of BPS Model
* E.g. Social isolation and joblessness ——-> depression/self-incrimination/sedentary lifestyle ——> hypercholestrolemia/myocardial infarction/diabetes
* BPS model implies that treatment of cancer/diabetes/mental disorders should address biological, psychological and social components of the problem.
* Multi Axial dimension to APA classification of mental disorders – DSM IV and WHOO ICD-10 classification of mental disorders are efforts to apply BPS in mental health care.Studies over the years have shown some real physiological consequences when it comes to a person??™s mental state. A fairly well-known example of this is the idea of a placebo effect. Patients can be told that they are taking a medicine when they actually aren??™t, and they might experience some level of relief just because they believe the medicine is real. Other studies have shown that happy patients heal more rapidly and have a better chance at recovery than those who are depressed. These bits of data generally support the idea behind the biopsychosocial approach.
Another concept that favors a broader approach to treating patients is the idea that behaviors are often directly related to illnesses. For example, people often become sick because of their inability to control themselves when eating or using harmful substances. This could be seen as a psychological issue with direct physical consequences. Doctors who follow the biopsychosocial approach tend to view every aspect of the patient as an important key to overall health, and they often look for psychological tendencies that might make a person more likely to be sick.
When people do become ill, sometimes a biopsychosocial approach can help them tolerate their illness better. Even if treating the patient??™s psychological or social life doesn??™t have a direct physical consequence, it can still play a role in that patients overall life experience and, therefore, affect the patient??™s perception of health. For example, if a patient is depressed about his sickness and generally in a bad mood overall, his physical symptoms might improve without really changing his overall negative outlook. A doctor using a biopsychosocial approach would probably take that into account and may help the patient by providing a counselor or antidepressant medication.
The biopsychosocial assessment refers to a series of questions asked at the beginning of treatment of an individual that obtain information about the major physical (bio), psychological, and social issues of the individual. This approach is called holistic because it posits that separate issues are often related. The course of a physical illness could influence social interaction or psychological function, or a social and familial background might have an impact on a biological or psychological problem. By asking a series of questions that may establish the most important elements in each of these spheres, a better treatment plan may be derived. A number of practitioners use biopsychosocial assessment, including social workers, psychiatrists, doctors of osteopathy, and psychotherapists..
It??™s useful to examine some of the questions that might be asked in a biopsychosocial assessment. Questions covering the biological sphere could include any history of disease, addiction, surgeries, medication use, and family history of illness. Sociological questions may concern family, living arrangements, relationships, finances, and stability of work, home, and school arrangements. Psychological assessment could have questions that cover the presence of psychiatric illness, strong stressors like recent bereavements, and risk of suicide.
While the assessment is holistic, it is often directed toward treating a problem in a specific sphere. A doctor of osteopathy would want to treat a medical or bio problem and might look at how psychosocial features contribute to it. The therapist could be helping a patient with a psychological issue, and would evaluate its social and physical components. The social worker might be trying to solve a client??™s social problem and would want to know the biological and psychological aspects that could be exacerbating it.
Any good biopsychosocial assessment needs to take into account that people may either lie intentionally or by omission. Ongoing assessment after an initial examination is useful to determine if a problem has been appropriately explored in all three spheres or whether new information creates new ways to visualize a targeted issue.
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The following outline compares the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment used by physicians who follow the biomedical and biopsychosocial model:3
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Biomedical Model
Reason for visit: Patient complains of chest pain.
Presentation: The focus is on physical causes of disease. The physician will ask few questions on recent diet, pain history, and familial incidence, however, empirical signs and symptoms of myocardial infarction are considered paramount.
Diagnosis: The clinician will order objective lab tests and monitor vital signs (i.e. temperature, pulse, and blood pressure) that would form the sole basis of any finding.
Therapy: The doctor will prescribe a medicinal plan for the patient based on biological etiology and pathogenesis.
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Biopsychosocial Model
Reason for visit: Patient complains of chest pain.
Presentation: The aim to ascertain psychosocial and physical processes that may cause the chief complain, chest pain. The physician may ask for a history of recent life stressors and behaviors.
Diagnosis: Based on a combination of psychological factors and standard lab tests, the clinician will form a diagnosis.
Therapy: The physician discusses the available interventions with special attention to behaviors and lifestyles that could influence her pain and adherence to the treatment plan. The patient is involved in formulating and implementing the plan, and maintains a supportive relationship with the clinician.CONCLUSION:
Biomedicine seeks to predict, control, and regiment. Biomedicine is not democratic. It gives all decision-making power to the physician and leaves the patient powerless. It has medicalized human life. It has distorted relations between humans and medicine. Pre-biomedicine humans controlled medicine and used it as they like. Post-biomedicine medicine controls human life and behavior. Today, individuals are living with diseases that would have taken their lives in the past. We see health and wellness is a broader forum. Medical practitioners are more frequently adopting the biopsychosocial form in their clinician practice. ? By integrating these multiple, interacting components of the subject of our science??”the patient??”we also become more humanistic. We link science and humanism.Reference 1: http://www.ukessays.com/essays/sociology/biomedical-model-of-health.php, Annandale,? The Sociology of Health and Medicine: A Critical Introduction, Polity Press, 1998
Reference2: http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-the-biomedical-model.htm
Reference 3 :http://cnx.org/content/m13589/latest/ Engel GL. The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine. Science. 1977;196:129??“36
Reference4: http://omarkasule-04.tripod.com/id1143.html
Reference 5: http://www.ashburnpsychologist.com/about_evidence_based_practice.html
Reference6: http://thedemarcationproblem.wordpress.com/2010/05/23/the-cartesian-doctor/
Reference 7: http://homes.esat.kuleuven.be/~bioiuser/bioscenter/contextandmotivation.php
Reference8: Engel GL. The clinical application of the biopsychosocial model. Am J Psychiatry 1980; 137:535-544 .

Construction – Eco Homes

Construction in the EnvironmentIssue:
SubmissionWigan and Leigh College is proposing 600 Eco homes at Bickershaw Colliery. I have been employed, by the client as an Environment consultant, as part of my role I have been asked to include sustainable construction techniques and carry out the following tasks related to the above project.Task One (P6)Select and describe a fit for purpose sustainable construction technique for each of the following issues: energy , materials and waste.Sustainable energy??¦.The modern day home is a multitude of expansive CO2 emitters, when mentioning CO2 some people have a tendency to think cars and exhaust fumes whilst over looking the other major emitter, our homes.Due to the ever rising concern of global pollution it has been legislated on all industry??™s not only the construction industry with the aim to mitigate or minimise carbon foot prints and it effects on the environment.Energy consumption in homes has many purposes such as keeping us warm in the winter and cool in the summer, cooking, cleaning and providing light.
There are downsides to the use of energy which can overall effect our environment. It may not be as clear but every time we switch on a light or run a bath we are consuming energy.
It is also important that we all realize the implications of our energy use. Not only can it have an adverse effect on the environment but it also costs us money!!Primarily a change in our behaviour towards energy use can in expense but others changes require investment that will pay for themselves later along the line through lower energy bills such as Solar Power.What is solar power
Solar power is energy given from the sun??™s rays. Even down to a tiny percentage of sunlight hitting earth this is sufficient enough energy and power for the entire human populations requirements. Solar power can be used in the following ways/
??? Solar cells also known as photoelectric cells are the most common devices that turn sunlight into electricity.
??? Solar water heaters which is basically; heat from the sun is used to heat water through glass panels which are installed on roofs, known as solar collectors. Solar collectors deal with heat from the sun (solar thermal energy) as opposed to light.
What are the benefits of Solar Power
Solar power is an ideal energy source as it is completely free and inexhaustible
The usage process exhausts no waste whatsoever.
It can be used in remote areas which are set away from other fuel resource
Each panel can be configured for its design usage whether that be; to power a calculator or heating temperature elements in our homes.
Is Solar Power cost effectiveWith the responsibility of everyone to produce sustainable energy source the government has introduced solar heating Renewable Heat Incentive Scheme??™s (RHI??™s) which pay back 18p per k/w of solar energy produced as well as reducing utility bills because there is no need to have any other energy sources. Solar panels used for solar power is like converting a car which runs on fossil fuels to a hybrid running on LPG. After the initial investment your home will run efficiently and cheaply for the next 30 years.
Sustainable material??¦??¦
[pic]Whilst construction techniques have developed in recent years so have the materials we use . Materials are the very component of a building which also has detrimental effects on the C02 output of the building during construction and during its life cycle.What is HempcreteHempcrete created by manufacturer Lime Technology is considered one of the most advanced material when constructing a Carbon zero home or building. Hempcrete is as an eco-friendly alternative to concrete.
Hempcrete is a generic term for a hemp-based building material that can be used in place of concrete as well as other beneficial building products. More concrete is made each year than any other man-made material It??™s second only to water as the most consumed substance on the entire planet!! It??™s been reported that each year, more than one ton of concrete is produced for each person on earth!
What is Hempcrete made from
Hemp is a versatile, natural fiber from a plant. Hemp is the strongest natural fiber in the world!! and it has been cultivated and processed for a wide variety of uses. In fact, the earliest known woven fabric was made of hemp over 10,000 years ago. It consists of a mixture of hemp, lime, sand, plaster, and cement, and can be used in the same way as concrete.
In recent years, hemp has gained a reputation as an environmentally friendly alternative to many other fibers. For example, hemp clothing and accessories are becoming popular alternatives to cotton or polyester.
Hemp is extremely environmentally friendly as it contains so many environmental benefits.
For starters, hemp can be grown in most climates, without pesticides, and uses very little water. Also, hemp products are 100% biodegradable.
What other materials are made from Hemp
Being a multipurpose material with excellent properties hemp can be manufactured into a wide variety of building needs. Hemp can be used in a wide range of areas including textiles (eg, clothing, bags), industrial textiles (eg, ropes, nets), food (eg, oils), body care products (eg, soap, shampoo), and building materials (eg, fiberboard, hempcrete).Sustainable Waste technique??¦.It is not only important to build a sustainable home with the most enhanced materials but It also important to control the quantity of waste going to land fill.This can be achieved by introducing waste management plans WMP??™s on site??™s and at your workplace. Provisioned by legislation this plan is set up to minimise waste going to landfill and producing more waste material. A waste management plan is policed on sites to ensure that all waste created by trades on site are segregated to their relevant waste stream for example general plasterboard waste can be recycled to produce more plasterboard providing it is kept pure whilst disposing (i.e not mixed with other material), brick and block waste from demolishing projects are crushed and used as foundation aggregate on other sites.Waste management plans are normally introduced onto projects with over a contract value of ?300,000. WMP??™s are not only good for the planet but as each material waste is designed to follow its own waste stream it also is cheaper in the long run.It is not only important to control waste management during construction on site but it is also important to implement good waste practice during the pre-construction phase.Waste does not only apply to materials but also energy. A drop in energy is a drop in human comfort for example if the temperature in our homes was to drop by 25% in the winter then we would feel un comftable. This is why its is important to design and construct a energy effiecient building . Normally legislated the walls must be sufficiently insulated and air tests carried out.The envelope of a building is electronically tested for air tightness, which deems how thermally sound a building is.Practises and guidlines such as this are created to produce zero energy wastage.[pic]

How Do Airports and Airlines Address the Future Threats to the Aviation Industry

SC 1205 ASSIGNMENT 2
How do Airports and Airlines address the future threats to the Aviation IndustryINTRODUCTIONAs the aviation industry is a multi-billion dollar business and is fast growing, the threats it is facing are also increasing on a fast pace. The airports and airlines have been discovering and developing measures to combat these threats. Through the years, security procedures evolved and it has been observed that most of the rules and procedures implemented by the governing bodies in aviation had been preceded by a major tragic incident or event.Airport security procedures are designed to prevent and respond to acts of unlawful interference that may affect the safety and security of the travelling public. While the airlines, having the full control of the aircraft while in-flight, are also adopting measures to
address these threats.We are going to tackle the most common measures implemented by airlines and airports, in cooperation with ICAO and other governing bodies in the aviation sector, to combat future threats to the aviation industry. This will include few examples of defining events that
shaped up few of these Standards and Recommended Procedures.A. Passenger and Baggage Reconciliation SystemAir India Flight 182 BombingOn June 23, 1985, an Air India Flight 182 was blown up by a bomb in mid-air over the Atlantic near Ireland. A total of 329 people were killed. The flight was operating from Toronto to Montreal as AI 181. The flight number had changed to Flight AI 182 for the return trip to London, New Delhi and Bombay. (Smith, 2001, pp. 109-112)On its way to London, at 07:05hrs GMT, Air India Flight 182 and relayed the information to Shannon International Airport Air Traffic Control while passing the Irish air space. At 07:14:01hrs GMT the Air India radar return suddenly vanished. Unknown to the controllers, Flight 182 had disintegrated in mid-air. An examination of passenger lists and computer records indicated that a traveller by the name of M. Singh, had checked in at Vancouver for Canadian Pacific Air Flight 060 to Toronto, and had failed to turn up but bags had been loaded. Mr M. Singh had not been confirmed on his connecting flight AI 182 because of overbooking at the time of reserving his seat, but he was waitlisted for the trip. (???Special Report: Air India Flight 182,??? n.d.)According to the National Geographic Channel series Air Crash Investigation, when Mr. M. Singh checked-in at the Canadian Pacific Air counter in Vancouver for Flight 060 to Toronto, the agent initially refused his request to inter-line the baggage since his seat from Toronto to Montreal and from Montreal to New Delhi and Bombay was unconfirmed. Mr. M. Singh insisted until the agent relented and permitted the suitcase to be checked though. Further investigation revealed that the said suitcase contained a bomb embedded in a Sanyo stereo tuner that caused the breakup of the aircraft in mid-air. The Canadian investigators were determined that the main suspects in the bombing were members of the Sikh militant group Babbar Khalsa and other related groups based in Canada. ICAO??™s Response
In an effort to combat such threat of sending an unaccompanied baggage with a bomb on board of an aircraft, one of the changes included in Amendment 7 to ICAO??™s Annex 17 that was adopted in 1989 is to provide for a further clarification of the Standards in dealing with reconciliation of baggage with passengers. (???Annex 17- Security: Safeguarding International Civil Aviation Against Acts of Unlawful Interference,??? n.d.)To comply with ICAO Annex 17, every airline has to ensure that no piece of luggage is transported in a flight without the corresponding passenger being on board the same aircraft. This regulation is the basis for all passenger and baggage reconciliation systems.There are two ways to comply such regulation:
1. Manual Passenger and Baggage Reconciliation
Each item of luggage is tagged while being loaded to the aircraft using a Bingo Sheet-type tally paper. The other part of the baggage tags, which are bar-coded, are stuck onto a sheet and compared to a list of the passengers on board. If luggage is identified without a corresponding passenger on board, it then has to be searched and offloaded. Searching of the luggage will take a lot of time as this system has no information about its location like the container or the zone it is in. The manual approach is time consuming and error prone. Furthermore, unloading luggage from an aircraft prior to departure is a regular cause of delays and incurs related costs. 2. Automated Passenger and Baggage Reconciliation
On checking-in a passenger??™s luggage will be tagged with a bar-coded tag, the counterpart tag being normally stuck onto the boarding card. The Baggage Reconciliation System (BRS) then receives loading permission from the check-in desk with certain information about each piece of luggage. This information is sent by the airlines host system to the BRS. Subject to the capabilities of the BRS in use, it is then possible to scan each item of luggage on loading. Using a hand scanner it is possible to record the luggage location, the container it is in and the zone it is placed. The time of loading is also recorded. At the departure gate the system checks each boarding passenger. If there is a piece of luggage without a corresponding passenger on board, a Baggage Unload Message is sent to the BRS, which can locate the luggage precisely using the data collected while loading. Should a search for a baggage item reveal that the bag was not loaded; the BRS internally adjusts the scanned data, and instructs that the loading permission for that bag to be denied. (???Baggage Reconciliation System PSIairport/BRS from PSI Logistics GmbH,??? n.d., p. 2) B. Controls over Items Left Behind on the Aircraft by Disembarking
PassengersKorean Air Flight 858 BombingOn 29 November 1987, Korean Air Flight 858 was travelling from Abu Dhabi to Seoul exploded mid-air and killed 115 individuals near Burma after 2 North Korean secret agents planted a bomb in the cabin. The agents were Kim Hyun-hee (25 years old) and Kim Sungil (69 years old), had conducted the bombing mission to disrupt preparations for the upcoming Olympic Games in South Korea. Posing as Japanese father and daughter tourists, they travelled to Moscow, Budapest, Vienna, and Belgrade before arriving in Baghdad on 29th November. (???Bombing of Korean Air Flight 858,??? n.d.) They had boarded KAL 858 from Baghdad and planted a bomb made from liquid explosive disguised in a liquor bottle and a detonator hidden in a radio in the overhead locker before disembarking the aircraft during the first stop-over in Abu Dhabi. (???115 Died in Nov. 29 Crash,??? 1988) Both had flown from Abu Dhabi to Bahrain and on 31 November at Bahrain International Airport, as they were about to take a flight to Rome, authorities became suspicious and both had been apprehended. Kim Sungil, bit into a cyanide-laced cigarette and died instantly. The police officer grabbed a similarly poisoned cigarette from Kim Hyun-hee.
She was transferred to South Korea for further interrogation where she confessed that she with her fellow agent planted the bomb. She was sentenced to death in March 1989 but was later pardoned by South Koreas president, Roh Tae-woo. (???Bombing of Korean Air Flight 858,??? n.d.)ICAO??™s Response
Also part of the changes included in the Amendment 7 of the ICAO??™s Annex 17 and was adopted on June 1989 is the control over items left behind on the aircraft by disembarking passengers. (???Annex 17 – Security: Safeguarding International Civil Aviation Against Acts of Unlawful Interference,??? n.d.)Airlines are now required properly check all the items left in the overhead lockers or anywhere inside the passenger cabins when an aircraft will unload part of the passengers in one stopover point. All the items should be identified and declared owned by those remaining passengers.C. Other Security MeasuresFurther to the above mentioned measures implemented by airlines and airports to boost aviation security, there are many procedures which are also being undertaken in the aviation system. AIRPORT SECURITY
1. Passenger Screening ??“ This involves the screening of the passenger and his carry-on baggage. A passenger walks through the Magnetometer – an automated screening system that detects any presence of metal. An alarm will trigger if sufficient amount of metal is detected. Simultaneously, the passenger??™s carry-on bag will be screened on an x-ray machine to examine its contents for prohibited items such as firearms, sharp objects that
may be used as weapons, or chemical-based trace explosives. 2. Checked-baggage Screening ??“ The Explosive Detection System (EDS) is a device that uses computed tomography technology are used to detect metal and trace of explosives that may be hidden in the baggage. All checked bags are screened prior to loading to an aircraft. 3. Employee Identification ??“ Airport and airline employees, concessionaires, contractors and government employees such as air traffic controllers and airport security staff are issued with Identification Cards (ID) and are required to display such at all times while inside the airport. In many instances, this ID badge is color-coded or marked to identify the areas in the airport the badge holder can access.4. Controlled Access and Perimeter Security ??“ In an airport, access to restricted areas are being controlled by using systems ranging from simple key locks to smart-access technologies, such as keypad entry systems requiring proper passcodes. The four common methods of securing the airport??™s perimeter are perimeter fencing, controlled access gates, area lighting and patrolling of the secured area. (Young & Wells, 2004, pp. 289-299)
AIRCRAFT SECURITY
1. Cockpit Door Design ??“ As a protective measure to combat hijacking and sabotage situations, the cockpit bulkhead and the door should be constructed to withstand small arms??™ fire and grenade shrapnel. This is to delay or prevent unauthorized entry to the cockpit. (Murphy, 2003, p. 22) 2. Sky Marshals ??“ Considered as the last line of defence, it is the deployment of armed guards on board of a civil aircraft, largely unnoticed by public, to protect the passengers and crew in the event of unlawful interference. The responsibility for employment, qualification and training must rest with state authorities in cooperation with the airlines. (Dolan, 2004, p. 120)CONCLUSION
As the major players of the aviation system, airlines and airports regard with high priority the security and safety of its facilities ??“ the airport and aircraft ??“ to protect all its stakeholders.To ensure the safe arrival and passengers and crews the security measures must be comprehensive starting on the ground ??“ at the airport. The security procedures conducted at the airport are the first line of defence against acts of unlawful interference. The special security provisions for cabin, cockpit and other sensitive areas in an aircraft and the deployment of sky marshals should not be a substitute for effective ground security and pre-board screening and control. These will only serve as the last line of defence.
The future threats to the civil aviation are unknown. But the efforts of the civil aviation system to make air travel as safe and secure as possible will continue to be the top priority
by the airports, airlines, the States and all the governing bodies of aviation.REFERENCES115 Died in Nov. 29 Crash : N. Korea Agent Confesses, Says She Put Bomb on Jet.
(1988, January 15). Los Angeles Times.Air Crash Investigation: Air India: Explosive Evidence (Air India Flight 182)
[Video]. (2008). London, England: National Geographic ChannelAnnex 17 – Security: Safeguarding International Civil Aviation Against Acts of Unlawful
Interference. (n.d.). Retrieved on December 04, 2011 from ICAO Website:
http://www.icao.int/eshop/pub/anx_info/an17_info_en.pdfBaggage Reconciliation System PSIairport/BRS from PSI Logistics GmbH. (n.d.) p. 2.
Retrieved on December 01, 2011 from http://www.psilogistics.com/fileadmin
/downloads/PSI_Logistics/pdf/airport/PSIairport_BRS_en.pdfBombing of Korean Air Flight 858. (n.d.). Retrieved on November 30, 2011 from
Xray Screener.com: http://www.x-rayscreener.com/CategoryID=332&ArticleID=161Dolan, D. J. (Apr 2004). Sky Marshalls – The ???Ultimate??? Solution , Intersec,
Vol. 14, Iss 4Murphy, T. (Jan 2003). Aviation Security Trends: The View from the Cockpit.
Vol.13, Iss 1.Smith, J. B. (2001). Aircraft Accident Report Air India Flight 182.
Carmel Valley, CASpecial Report: Air India Flight 182. (n.d.) Retrieved on December 1, 2011, from
AirDisaster.com: http://www.airdisaster.com/special/special-ai182.shtmlYoung, S. B., & Wells, A. T. (2004). Airport Planning and Management (5th Edition),
New York: McGraw-Hill.