Consider One or More of the Ways in Which Irish Fiction Addresses the Subject of Violence.

There is a long history of violence within Ireland, and subsequently a long history of violence within Irish fiction. Ireland, like all countries, has seen multitudinous violent acts perpetrated for many different reasons, but for a long time within the Western media the most widely publicised aspect of Irish violence has been the political violence of Northern Ireland; the ???Troubles??™. Understandably this has shaped the collective psyche of the country and influenced Ireland??™s people (author??™s included) and has therefore featured heavily in Irish Fiction. Gerry Smyth says that the type casting of Irish characters is detrimental to the quality and originality of Irish fiction;
Modern Northern Ireland has not always been well served by its novelists, or indeed by those foreign writers attracted to the ???novel opportunity??™ provided by the ???Troubles??™??¦ the fictional representations of Ireland seem to get stuck around 1972. The subgenre of the ???Troubles Thriller??™, for example, tends towards melodrama and a sort of voyeuristic violence in which stock characters and images are recycled in more or less disabling ways (Smyth, 1997: 114)

However, whilst the Troubles will always remain a large part of Ireland??™s history, contemporary Irish fiction has gradually began to move away from what is labelled the ???Trouble??™s Thriller??™ and a new, more diverse form of writing more in touch with the modernity of new Ireland has emerged. In these novels violence stems from not only more varied, but from deeper and more disturbing sources.
In this assignment I will examine the way in which violence is addressed in three contemporary Irish novels; Patrick McCabe??™s The Butcher Boy, Joseph O??™Connor??™s Cowboys and Indians and William Trevor??™s Felicia??™s Journey. I will show how violence can be shown in fiction to occur as a result of social isolation, from emotional trauma incurred as a result of physical and sexual abuse and yes, from the ???Troubles??™ but in a far less overt and direct way than the melodramatic and voyeuristic violence contemptuously identified by Smyth.
In The Butcher Boy the progressive narrative of Francie Brady??™s life exemplifies the theory that violence can be inextricably linked to both isolation and abuse. From the novel??™s inception Francie is depicted as being separate from the rest of his community and even from his family. Throughout the novel the gulf between Francie and the outside world grows increasingly large and as his sense of isolation increases he becomes more out of touch with reality. With the bond of friendship between Francie and Joe dissipating Francie is devoid of guidance and an ability to regulate his behaviour, subsequently his propensity towards violence steadily intensifies. The inevitability of this is evident as even before Francie himself perpetrates violence upon others the reader sees he is the recipient of vicious punishment beatings from his affectionate yet mentally unstable mother,
Ma pulled me down the stairs and gave me the mother and father of a flaking but it took more out of her than it did out of me for her hands were trembling like leaves in the breeze she threw the stick from her and steadied herself in the kitchen saying she was sorry over and over??¦ She put her arms round me and said it was her nerves it was them was to blame for everything. (McCabe, 1992: 4)The family are locked in a cycle of abuse; Francie??™s mother suffers at the hands of her abusive, alcoholic husband and in turn she disciplines Francie with violence. In contrast to the Nugent family, whose idyllic nuclear existence and cohesive family structure allow for clear lines of communication and cooperation from each family member, the Brady family is not so much a family as three isolated people living together beneath one roof. The sense of frustration and loneliness that is the catalyst for the Brady family??™s violence within and without the household also eventually leads to the breakdown of the family unit. The mother??™s suicide and the father??™s descent into a fatalistic routine of alcohol abuse are a symptom of their lack of communication and their inability to voice concerns or feelings to one another. In their isolation they are unable to have a controlled impact or influence upon even their own lives except through the most extreme and violent means.
In Felicia??™s Journey violence and loneliness also play a large part in the dynamics of the household. Felicia??™s background is shaped by violence through her father??™s unwavering support for those who fought for Ireland??™s independence, specifically his late grandfather who died during the ???Troubles??™. ???Felicia??™s father honoured the bloodshed on his own: regularly in the evenings he sat with his scrap books of those revolutionary times??? (Trevor. 1995: 24). Felicia never experiences violence herself, at least not at home, but because of her father??™s idealistic views she is left at home in daily isolation to care for her elderly and sick grandmother. Like the Brady family, Felicia??™s irregular home life is largely is due to a wider problem prevalent throughout Ireland at the time both the novel??™s were set. Francie and Felicia exist in an Ireland which has been taught to aspire to Eamon de Valera??™s unrealistic pastoral ideal; an environment which is designed for conformists like the Nugent family but which is unsympathetic to anyone who does not meet the criteria. Subsequently Felicia is unable to remain at home knowing she will be branded a disgrace and made a pariah because of her illegitimate pregnancy and her relationship with one whom is deemed an enemy by her father, and the Brady??™s are made to feel alienated from one another and from those around them because of how they are viewed within the community. Tom Herron says in the book Contemporary Irish Fiction,
The Butcher Boy ridicules de Valera??™s utopian vision, it should also be stressed that this vision bore little reality to an actual social formation which ruthlessly concealed such problems as mental illness, alcoholism, misogyny, domestic violence and child abuse??¦ The Brady??™s, in fact represent the underside of this idealized Ireland; they are the rural or semi-urban trash, the dysfunctional, the poor, the drunkard, the emotionally scarred, the lost, none of whom can be admitted into the authorized version of the socially integrated and exclusively rural republic (Herron, 2000: 176)This shows that the Brady family are representative of a largely ignored demographic and that their dysfunctional behaviour is not a result of inherent malice but that it stems from an inequality within society which leaves them marginalised and unable to reach out for assistance. Desperation makes violence the only mode of communication and expression available to them. In this context violence is used as part of a social commentary to highlight the harmful situation that Irish communities face; that ignoring social problems in a bid to construct an idealised version of Ireland renders the pastoral ideal unattainable due to leaving the problems untreated. Both Francie??™s and Felicia??™s fate corroborate this.
Like Felicia??™s plight, Marion??™s in Cowboys and Indians also gives the sense that unsympathetic, small town living can be destructive to those who are raised in non-nuclear or dysfunctional families. Her situation demonstrates that problems are often ignored at best, and made taboo at worst. As a result the victims and sufferers are unable to reach out for assistance when they need it the most. Rather than face the stigma that can be attached to speaking out and revealing oneself as ???different??™, a person will often submit and allow themselves to suffer in order to maintain the facade of respectability.
There are eerily similar circumstances in the lives of Felicia, Francie, and Marion, and also noticeable similarities in the ways that the turbulent and unconventional upbringings of the latter two characters affect them and induce them to lash out violently. Although nothing in Cowboys or Felicia is as explicit as the grotesquery in The Butcher Boy it seems, if Eddie Virago is to be believed, that
Marion has been engaging in an incestuous relationship with her father,
And suddenly, with a sickening shudder, he knew??¦ He thought of the way she had touched her father??™s face that morning. The way her father had pulled her soft body close to his chest. The way his gnarled purple hands had stroked her hair and her lips (O??™Connor, 1991: 176) Not only has Marion been abused by her father, but like Felicia who has taken on the role of housewife in her own home Marion??™s unstable home life and the absence of a mother in the family unit seems to have made Marion become complicit in her situation and take on the role of wife to her father; indeed she does not seem to consciously dislike him and it is only later when she reacts with violence to another situation that we see she may have been harbouring subconscious resentment because of her abuse. Similarly, the following passage shows how Francie??™s relationship with Father Tiddly plays out in a parallel manner,
Sit up here now, he says and took me on his knee??¦ I stuck my finger in my mouth and rolled my eyes mischievously??¦ What do you think say I putting it on and doing a twirl for him in the mirror. I went spinning round the room and Tiddly got so weak he had to steady himself against the arm of the chair (McCabe, 1992: 4)Both passages strongly insinuate that the absence of ???normal??™ motherly affection and presence of an abusive father have rendered Marion and Francie unable to distinguish between healthy and unhealthy displays of affection. Their innate instinct to abhor the unnatural situations they are placed in seems distorted; the feelings suppressed only to surface ferociously at a later time. It would be wrong to assert a link between Marion??™s abuse and her later violence without some kind of substantiating evidence, therefore an examination of the context in which Marion??™s, and also Francie??™s suppressed emotions result in violence is necessary.
Evidence suggests that incest victims, particularly post-adolescent females can experience a wide range of emotional and behavioural problems in later life. Herman and Hirschman say in ???Father-Daughter Incest??™,
??¦investigators, however, have testified to the destructive effects of the incest experience on the development of the child??¦ Indulgence in incest in the post-adolescent period leads to serious repercussions in the girl, even in an environment where the moral standards are relaxed??¦ Depression and guilt were universal as clinical findings…. a recent report by Benward and Densen-Gerber, document a strong association between reported incest history and the later development of promiscuity or prostitution. (Herman and Hirschman, 1977: 739)The reference to promiscuity is certainly significant as is testified by Marion??™s behaviour towards Eddie in the (very) early stages of their relationship, ???When she pushed her hand down the front of his trousers he didn??™t object. She jerked him off before she even knew his name??? (O??™Connor, 1991: 12). Knowing Marion??™s background and her lack of understanding of conventional rules and etiquettes surrounding interpersonal relationships it is no great leap to appreciate why her violent temper flares during another sexually intimate encounter,
He moved his thigh across hers and pushed his hand up the front of her T-shirt. His fingers touched her breasts??¦ In the dark, she screamed. She sat up straight and punched his face??¦ She lunged at the bed. The scissors cut into the pillow, and white feathers spilled up through the air??¦ She slashed the pillow again and again, until she was almost hysterical. Every stab felt to Eddie like it was aimed at him (O??™Connor, 1991: 190).The phrase, ???In the dark she screamed??™ seems to indicate more than mere anger at an unwanted advance from a steady boyfriend, and instead seems to imply a more savage reaction to intimacy, one that would appear more in tune with the surfacing of a repressed discomfort with being touched sexually. The destructive slashing of the pillow and the specific allusion to its whiteness stand out vividly as symbols of Marion??™s destroyed innocence; the savage penetration and violation of her virginity with the scissors acting as a spectral phallus. Once again parallels with Francie??™s situation are evident. ???I think I hit him first he fell back and I and I heard him shout Don??™t hurt me Francie I love you! There was a paper knife in his desk??¦ tried to cut him??? (McCabe, 1992: 90). When Francie attempts to stab Father Tiddly with a paper knife his attack is not direct retaliation for the sexual abuse he is suffering at that moment, instead it is his way of expressing anger at being forced to remember past family transgressions and his perceived disloyalty to his mother; repressed feelings that are now being forced to resurface.
As earlier stated, each novel steers well clear of the predictable and hackneyed conventions used within the ???Troubles Thriller??™ genre, yet all three are united in common themes that show violence as a result of an unstable, abusive upbringing and the catalyst for much confusion and isolation for the sufferer. Each character has, to a greater or lesser degree, suffered abuse and neglect. Whilst this was invariably perpetrated upon them by those closest to them it is also symptomatic of wider social problems. In this sense it can be said that the violence in these novels is not a consequence of the ???Troubles??™ of Ireland, but is instead the result of the troubles of Ireland.
Bibliography:Primary Source/s:McCabe, P. (1992) The Butcher Boy: Picador
O??™Connor, J. (1991) Cowboys and Indians: Vintage Books
Trevor, W. (1995) Felicia??™s Journey: Penguin BooksSecondary Source/s:Herron, T. (2000) ???Bright with cosy homesteads: The Butcher Boy (1992) In: L. Harte and M. Parker eds. (2000) Contemporary Irish Fiction: Themes, Tropes, Theories: PalgraveSmyth, G. (1997) The Novel and the Nation: Studies in the New Irish Fiction: Pluto PressInternet Source/s:Father-Daughter Incest Author(s): Judith Herman and Lisa Hirschman Source: Signs, Vol. 2, No. 4 (Summer, 1977), pp. 735-756 Published by: The University of Chicago Press Stable URL:
Accessed: 10/01/09

How Can the Way We Organise Our Thinking by Using Mental Images, Concepts and Schemes Help Us Improve Our Memory

In today??™s society we are constantly reminded of the importance of our memory and the necessity to look after it. Scientists are continually investigating how to improve our memory by researching that most complex part of our bodies ??“ the brain. The complex, interlinking parts of the brain is a network, demonstrates that a problem in one area of the brain can cause a problem to our memory. Therefore, one of the crucial questions to scientists has always been; ???How can we preserve our memory, prevent memory loss or improve it???Although the research is carried out and psychologists are investigating memory on an ongoing basis, there are already a number of mnemonics or memory strategies scientifically proven to improve our memory based on using mental images, schemes and concepts.The question asks for the way in which thinking can be organised using mental images, concepts and schemes. The next sections will discuss each of these.Mental Image Although Semantic thought – our inner conversations and thinking in words- is the one that we use the most, Iconic thought- thinking in mental images and pictures is vital to help us with our memory.A mental image can represent information by recalling distinctive items, colourful or unusual images that, in connection with a verbal or written text, will help us to fix the information in our memory. Adding an additional image will help the brain to store the information and recall it more effectively. One of the experiments that support the significance in using mental images was developed in 1975 by Michael Raugh and Richard Atkinson, using the key word technique when learning a foreign language. The foreign word in is given to the subject, who is required to imagine an English word that would sound similar, so that later that image would help them recall the foreign word from their memory.
(Raugh M, Richard Atkinson, (1975) cited in Spoors, 2010)
Many of us develop our own mnemonics, or clues, that help us to remember specific information. Usually we associate our information by using visual images, sentences or words. For example a child learning the guitar will be encouraged to remember the sequence and the names of the guitar strings by remembering a mnemonic such as, ???Even after dinner good boys eat.???In 500BC in Ancient Greece, , the poet Simodes developed a memory device called method of loci. This method was effective in remembering words and speech; associating each word with a certain landmark or sequence of locations that are already known to the individual (Spoors 2010).Concepts The use of Concepts is a grouping of the mental images that we hold in our memory. It helps us categorise the information that we want to remember and, by so doing, our brain is able to recall the information in these specific categories. For example, one can remember the following words – chair, sofa, lamp, daffodil, rose, milk, bread – if one groups them and remembers that the objects are pieces of furniture, names of flowers and items on a shopping list.Experiments have also proved that giving category headings as cues helped the participants in an experiment to recall more information then those without the category heading; in this way proving that the information in our brain is stored in an organised way, with each cue recalling previously stored information.SchemasSchema is a mental framework – a personal collection of memories and experiences. This may include our knowledge of certain situations, objects, other people, ourselves etc. It is. It can be used consciously or sub consciously when repeating everyday procedures or in more complex processes such as learning to play a musical instrument. So, it is possible to use a schema to help to remember the steps in a procedure which has been performed successfully on one occasion or to build up a series of actions which lead to more complex structures. For example, if the point of playing music is to be able to express feelings through sound, the means of doing this is technique. Technique in playing a musical instrument is built upon a number of smaller techniques. In order to learn to play a brass instrument, the main techniques are breath control, embouchure (lip muscle) development, articulation. Each of these techniques has to be used in coordination with each other in order to develop the whole technique. In this example, there are too many techniques on which the mind has to concentrate on simultaneously, therefore, muscle memory can help each one to stay in place and so the whole schema of technique ultimately supports itself.
ConclusionWe often, refer to ourselves as visual learners or verbal learners; however the verbal learners possibly underestimate the visual influence on their memory. As described above, without colours, unusual images, associations, clues and cues, it would be significantly harder to recall things in our memory.Concepts are there to help us to classify our information and simple things such as giving articles headings, drawing attention to bullet points, separating the paragraphs. All these will help us to memorize better where as without schemas our lives would be difficult to imagine. Most of our actions are built on our previous experiences. For example, for those of us who have never skied before it would be a new process of events in order to get to the ski slopes. However, once we have experienced it, we will be more confident about the equipment required, which ski pass to buy and which slopes to choose for our skiing abilities. Memory is essential if our life experiences are to be useful for future actions. The way in which we organise those experiences and our thinking are personal and often more than one of the methods described above are used, each helping our memory in a different way.Word count: 974References:Spoors, P., Dyer, E.W. and Finlay, L. (2010) Starting with Psychology, Milton Keynes, The Open University

Conservative Viewpoint

The topic being discussed is about Conservative activists saying that gay marriage threatens religious liberty. The article says that if you oppose same sex marriage then you are a bigot. There is a lot of legal pressure on religious conservatives when it comes to this issue. The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston stopped providing adoption services to gay parents because they believe it violates the teachings of the church. Gay advocates feel that the church should not base their decisions on how they feel and they also believe that they should be treated the same as other couples , so as more states legalize gay marriage we are likely to encounter more battles between conservatives and gay couples . In the six states that gay marriage is allowed, the churches and houses of worship do not have to perform same-sex weddings and also, these states prevent same-sex married couples to adopt and go for marriage counseling. In Iowa conservative Christian groups argue that county clerks should not have to grant marriage licenses to same-sex couples. Jim Campbell of Alliance Defense Fund that represents same-sex marriage opponents believe if there is constitutional protection for religious freedom in those same-sex marriage states states, there will always be disputes between the same-sex couples and religious believers. Gay couples feel if they are considered ???married??? in one of those six states then other states should honor their marriage license by acknowledging their marriages as well. Legal scholars are boosting conservatives and same-sex couples to thrash out this issue because if they listen to each other??™s point difficult cases they could easily come up with some solutions. Religious conservatives do not want to work with gay advocates on passing the gay marriage law. More and more battles will take place in court as more states pass the gay marriage law. There is no willingness between the two sides to allow each side to live their lives as they see fit.
I think this gay marriage law war will go on for many years because many people are stuck in their old ways. Conservatives or religious conservatives are not typically open to new ideas and new ways of life which the author projects in this article. I think the author has argues both liberal and conservative sides and as a result I agree with the author that more disputes are likely to break out once more states legalize the law.

How Can the Way We Organise Our Thinking by Using Mental Images, Concepts and Schemas

How can the way we organise our thinking by using mental images, concepts and schemas help us improve our memory
Every day we are continuously bombarded with information, but how do we preserve information to recall everything without hardship I will be analysing three main principles on how we can organise our thinking by looking firstly at mental images, concepts and finally schemas. Furthermore, I will look at how this helps us organise our thinking and how this organisation can improve our memory.

Firstly, I will contemplate the role of mental images by constructing a mental picture or iconic thought. As adults the use of semantic thought is predominant, where we think in words and meaning. Nevertheless the evidence of numerous experiments suggests to recall verbal or written information is to construct grand, vivid, comical images of the information to make it more distinctive which provides a cue to recollect information. The more time and effort we spend on constructing a mental picture the more it will fix in our memory.A popular technique named mnemonics is used for improving memory, based on using mental images. One classical proven mnemonic technique called ???method of Ioci??™ developed by the poet Simonides, works by the learner linking bizarre and distinctive mental images of the items they are trying to recall, with a sequence of locations they already know. This strategy can be a powerful aid to memory and can be adapted for other significant situations.I also want to look at a very effective method, proven to prompt our memory which can be used to learn a new language. This is the key word technique which works by associating the word with something you already know by constructing mental images and focusing on their sounds, rhythm and meaning. An illustration of this is given by ???Spoors et al (2007)??™ to remember a French word ???poubelle??™ (meaning bin in English) by making a picture of a bell being used as a bin, where you are holding your nose due to the unpleasant smell. To reinforce this, researchers ???Raugh and Atkinson (1975)??™ used also the key word technique where they experimented on two groups of participants whom were asked to learn a list of 60 Spanish words, but only half of them were taught the key word technique. Participants using the key word technique scored an average of 88% compared with only 28% who did not.Secondly, another theory or image known as a concept can also aid and encourage our memory by organising our thoughts and information by developing categories known as concept formation. Concepts can contain other sub-concepts and even further sub-concepts. Or by way of creating a mental filing system, intentionally implementing relevant storage instructions, having a certain memory being placed in the right filing cabinet, drawer or file can assist and prompt later to retrieve information from long-term memory.To corroborate this, an experiment by Weston Bousfield (1953) asked participants to learn a list of sixty words that could be divided into four categories, in random order. Participants tended to remember them in groups which belong to the same category, for instance, if they recalled apple it would be followed by other fruits. Each bit of stored information cues the next bit by being processed and organised mentally.

Another analysis is from George Mandler (1967), which suggests by organising information we learn it without making any effort to memorise it. An experiment was carried out where two groups of participants were given a pack of 100 cards and were asked to sort the cards out into groups with words printed on them. Only one group were given instructions to try and memorise the words. This group who had learned the words recalled more words.Finally, a third way of improving the memory and organising our thoughts has the same likeness to concept formation which is also more comprehensive and significant. It??™s the use of schemas. What are schemas One way best to describe this would be like a mental filing system based on a framework of knowledge about certain objects, situations or even about yourself or a group of people we cluster and develop as a result of our worldly experiences. This concept was proposed by a psychologist named Jean Piaget who died in 1980, having spent over 50 years investigating the way that children developed their cognitive skills by developing schemas.To illustrate this, if you list everything that you would associate with the word doctors, this would give you your doctor schema. Your doctor schema may include items such as a waiting room, receptionist, the doctor himself, with the stethoscope and blood pressure monitor on his desk.

Experiment carried out by John Bransford (1972) et al, demonstrated the role of schemas in our process to retrieve information. In one of his experiments, participants were asked to read a passage and later were asked to recall it as accurately as possible. Only half the participants were given a title. The participants who were given the title for the passage understood more clearly and were able to recall the information better than the other participants. The title of the passage provides a schema so that the information can be stored logically and remembered effortlessly. I have briefly explored with the relevant research and evidence to substantiate that the ways we think and organise our thinking by using mental images, concepts and schemas certainly helps to improve our memory and that all three techniques are proven to be significant, whether it is by constructing a mental picture or use of concept formation or information being stored in an organised structure by using schemas. These processes help us retrieve something consciously filed in the long-term memory by thinking of an association or cue applied during learning. Continuous use of a retrieval cue to search for a memory means the stronger the route to the memory and the easier it is to retrieve, which also helps reinforce your learning. Word count: 1,005`References:Spoors, P, Dyer, E. W ,Finlay, L. (2007) Start with psychology, Milton Keynes, The Open University


Conservation is the preservation and the careful management of the natural environment and its natural resources. Conservation means many things to many people. To some it means preserving the wilderness in certain sections. To others it means preserving the wildlife. Conservation includes efforts to protect forests, as well as the wise use of all natural resources. Some people still do not know the importance of conservation and are unknowingly wasting our planets??™ natural resources.By conserving the environment, we can protect many living organisms from extinction. Nowadays, people are clearing a lot of rainforest to obtain more land for various uses. This will have a negative impact on the environment.When clearing a piece of land, many living organisms will lose their natural habitats and homes. This will result in the living organisms having to homes to live and reproduce. When this happens, they may face the extinction of their whole population. When a population is wiped out, it will affect the other living organisms who feed on them and those whom are being fed by them. It will affect the environment??™s food chain and the food web. This is dangerous as we get our food sources mostly from some of the animals, without them, we will also die of hunger and lack of food source.When clearing land, the machines used will pollute the air with the smoke coming out from the machines. This will disrupt the natural cycles which may lead to global warming. Global warming is a very serious matter and it will cause climate changes, the depletion of the ozone layer and have a negative impact to the living organisms on Earth including us.We must do our part in protecting the environment.Governments can impose strict laws and regulations on hunting of animals. Hunters must not overhunt animals. In addition, the government can reserve some of the land as nature reserves, thus lesser land will be lost.Organizations can organize campaigns on conservation of the environment. They can also organize activities to help the environment which includes tree-planting, recycling and beach clean-ups.As individuals, we can play our part in helping the environment and conserving by using environmentally friendly products.

How Can the Way in Which We Organise Our Thinking by Using Mental Images, Concepts and Schemas Help Us Improve Our Memory

How can the way in which we organise our thinking by using mental images, concepts and schemas help us improve our memory How can the way in which we organise our thinking by using mental images, concepts and schemas help us improve our memory This essay is going to look into how people organise there thinking. It will look into mental images, concepts and schema. In adult life we tend to use words to help us remember things, this is also know as semantic thought. However it has been researched and found out that when people use mental images to remember things such as verbal or written information they remember things more clearly. They can act as a prompt to remember the information. This is aided when the image that we use is something big, bright and distinctive so that it is thought provoking rather than an everyday object. Times when we might use mental images are also when we learn a new language, for example in French the word ???poubelle??™, which is pronounced, ???pooh-bell??? which means ???bin??™ in English. The way of remembering this is by imaging that a bin can smell very bad and if you imagine yourself lifting the lid of a bin that is shaped like a bell and holding your nose due to the ???pooh???. This one example does not always work with everyone however people can get into there own routine and what works for them. However that is a basic example of what using mental images is about. This key word technique was developed and carried out by Michael Raugh and Richard Atkinson (1975) in which they carried out experiments on two groups of people who were asking to learn 60 Spanish words. One of the groups had been taught the keyword technique using mental images. The other was left to there own devices. When the groups were tested the first group scored an average of 88% where their second group only managed an average score of 28%. Mnemonics are able to help us to remember things that are constant and don??™t change like ???big elephants can always use small entrances??? which helps me remember how to spell ???because??? which was taught to me as a child. Mnemonics can be as different and unusual, as you want to make them as like with the mental images it helps you remember when they are more unusual and not like everyday things. The using of mental images is able to help us become more efficient with the way we think and remember however being about to sort things out in our minds and organise our thoughts can be helps by putting things into there own categories.Concept formation is the process of developing categories. An example of this is ???animal??? a concept that contains other sub-concepts and then further sub-concepts. We could sort them into birds, fish, mammals etc. We could then divide the birds into Eagles, Seagulls, and owls??™ etc/. When we apply our concepts we tend to use defining features for example to define an owl a bird because it has features like feathers, beak and can fly. Although these are very defining features they are not rigid as Penguins and ostriches are classed as birds and yet they are unable to fly. Another example of this is a table; having four legs, flat and we put things on it. But the same can be said for a stool, so as you can see it is not like a rigid law of features each concept must have to be identified. We actually use concepts without even noticing it. However if we watch children develop they often use it in there thinking to develop their concepts. However they can often make mistakes in overgeneralising a concept that they are trying to get to grips with. They may have developed a concept for a sheep as an animal with hair, four legs and a tail, but then they may also apply this concept to a horse, dog or cat. Similarly they may also learn that a tall person with a deep voice is called Daddy and then associate that with any passing man in the street. A schema is a word used by psychologists to describe framework in which you would file all your knowledge about certain situations, objects, and groups of people or even yourself. An example of this is Dentist as an occupation. But a list that you would associate with the word dentist would be your schema. A list may contain a waiting room; dentists chair sound of drilling, worry etc. The term schema (plural schemas or schemata) was used by a Swiss psychologist named Jean Piaget, who died in 1980, he spent over half a century investigating the way children develop there thinking or there cognitive skills. He proposed that they did this by developing schemas that are built up from their experience of the world around them. Schemas can aid in us recalling information as they can provide a framework that is organised and the information is stored appropriately and they can provide us with prompts that can trigger our memory. In an experiment carried out by John Bransford and Marcia Johnson (1972) they gave participants a passage with only half having a title to the passage an extract is printed below:???The procedure is actually quite simple. First you arrange
Items into different groups. Of course one pile may be
Sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you
have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities that is
the next step; otherwise you are pretty well set??¦.??? Most of the participants who read the extract without the title reported great difficulty in understanding the passage, let alone trying to recall the details. However the ones with the title ???Washing Clothes??? in mind everything fell into place. The title provides a schema for the information to be stored correctly and recalled more easily. To conclude this essay I have discovered that the more senses that you use to associate with a particular item the likely you are to remember it. Either by using one of the methods, or by using a combination of mental images, schemas and concept formation. BibliographyStarting with psychology Chapter 3


Conservation is being able to use the resources without harming excessive damages to the environment. By doing this makes sure that future generations can be accomplished. Preservation is basically blocking off an undisturbed areas by maintain them to protect them from human activities that could affect their natural state.
I don??™t believe that it??™s possible for example (Fuel, Oil). You??™re putting and taking so much of it out of the ground which could cause accidents even if you??™re able to clean up after it. It is still stand out in harming the environment and animals. Another example mentioned from the ???Bridger Teton Video???, there is so much work into keeping national parks from endangering its environment. By the other name ???Management Area 71??? under knowledge of maybe testing oil and fuel can become a hazard to the National Forrest Areas. The growth of forests and animals in the national forest is to preserve and protect them from endangerment.
I guess I would deeply have to consider not doing heavy changes, but I understand that on the boarders of the national forest are areas to fish etc. By most regulations in visiting a national forest to even fish you cannot take but catch and release. No Hunting or forest demolition either! I believe there are substantial areas beside national forest etc. That could be used for it, because the conditions not that important or land wise. My position would be in fact to ???Preservations??? dealing with our national wild life forest and parks.

How Can the Way in Which We Organise Our Thinking by Using Mental Images, Concepts and Schemas Help Us to Improve Our Memory

Essay PlanINTRO ??“
This will state the aim of my essay and a brief explanation of what I intend to include in it. (100 – 150 words approx)MAIN BODY –
– A definition of each of the terms using the book as reference material
– Then explore how each help our memory formation and recall using:
o the use of key words by Raugh and Atkinson (1975)
o the idea of concepts by Bousfield (1953) and Mandler (1967)
o and the ??¦..
all cited in Staring with Psychology 2011 as reference material, giving alternative examples to show my understanding of the concepts. (700 – 800 words approx)CONCLUSION ??“
A brief summary and drawing together of all key points included in main body. (100 – 150 words approx)
EssayHow can the way in which we organise our thinking by using mental images, concepts and schemas help us to improve our memory???Cognitive Psychology??™ looks at attention, language, memory, perception and problem solving. Cognitive psychologists believe that our thoughts are organised using a variety of methods which can also support memory formation and recall. The purppose of my essay is to consider the way in which three methods – mental images, concepts and schemas, help us with this function.I aim to define the terms and describe how each helps support our memory, bearing in mind everyone??™is different and not everything works in the same way for everyone, using studies by Raugh and Atkinson, (1975), Bousfield (1953), Mandler (1967) and Bransford and Johnston (1972), (all cited in Starting with Psychology, Spoors et al 2011).Lets start with defining the terms of 3 ways of organising our thoughts and memory so we can be clear about what each is.
Mental images are the abiltiy of the human brain to visualise something that it has previously ???seen/experienced??™ but isn??™t presently there.
Concepts are something formed in the mind such as an idea, thought or notion. Concept formation is the process of making a mental note of something that share similarities or links
Schemas are a mental structure/framework that help us to organize and interpret information in the world around us.
Looking first at??™ Iconic thought??™ (thinking based on using mental images). Most of our adult thinking involves the use of words and images. If you think about the internal conversation we have in our minds we not only ???talk??™ to ourselves, but use images to support those words. When we try to form a memory it??™s argued that the use of mental images supports us, as it takes us time, effort and concentration to construct the image in the first instance, this gives the brain time to firmly log it into our memory. This is then used to support our memory recall. Raugh and Atkinson (1975) (pg 45 Spoors et al. 2011) developed an experiment to test this, using the ???key Word??™ technique. They asked a group of individuals to learn a list of 60 Spanish words. They split the group into 2 and taught one group the ???Key Word??™ technique which they believed would help them recall the words. They were all given the same time to carry out the test and all tested at the end. Those who used the ???key Word??™ technique averaged 88%, whereas the others averaged 28%. Thus confirming their theory that using Key words supports memory recall.
Secondly we use ???Concept Formation??™ the ???process of making a mental representtion of a group of objects or events that share similar properties??™ (cited on pg 50 Spoors et al. 2011).
Bousfield (1953) and Mandler (1967) (cited on pg 53 Spoors et al. 2011) carried out another experiment with words on cards. They, again, divided the participants into 2 groups, asking both to sort the cards into ???groups??™, but used an independent variable whereby one group were also asked to memorise the words whilst sorting them. On test, there was no recognisable difference in results. This showed that it was the categorising which aided the memory rather than trying to remember.
The last method, the use of ???Schemas??™ is a similar technique to the method of concept formation, but more extensive. Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget came up with this (pg 54 Spoors et al. 2011). Schemata are the brains way of organising or filing thoughts and knowledge of something experienced and other similar things into one ???file??™ or ???package??™ so when you recall one bit the other things you associate with it can be drawn upon also helping us interpret the world around us. E.g. when an infant is learning, they may think that the tall male figure around them with short hair and a deep voice is ???Dad??™ and so when out in the shops they call every man or person who is tall with short hair and a deep voice ???Dad??™, as this is their current knowledge set /schema. Slowly they realise that only one is dad and the others are just ???men??™ and so develop a new schema of a ???man??™ as well as ???Dad??™.
Bransford and Johnson (1972) (cited on pg 55 Spoors et al. 2011) explored the role of schemata, our understanding and memory recall using the ???washing clothes??™ experiment. They asked 2 groups to read a passage and to recall as much as possible. One group were however given the title of the passage ??“ ???washing clothes??™ This group were able to recall far more than the other as the title provided them with a schema which they used to support their understanding of the passage, interpret it appropriately and use this information to support their recall.
Sorting and filing our thoughts using schemata, supports memory recall as one thing opens the drawer/file and other associated things come with it.
It??™s also possible that we add bits in to our memory according to what our schema is around that situation. Our feelings and attitides are linked here and can make us believe things that haven??™t happened or are not quite true about someone which can unfortunately lead to steroetyping and discrimination depending on the experieinces and information we have stored away.In conclusion our brains are highly complex structures which operate in a variety of ways dependant on the individual and what it??™s trying to perform. The use of the 3 methods I??™ve discussed above have a very useful role in the way we interpret, store and recall our thoughts and experiences. Mental images support the brain to visualise something that it has previously experienced but isn??™t presently there; Concept formation, categorises groups of objects or events that share similar properties to help us understand the world around us and file things together to make sense in future; then lastly Schemas, the framework that helps us organize and interpret information in the world around us. All help us understand what is going on around us, store it effectively and efficiently in order to support our memory and ability to recall information.Word count: 1005References
Bousfield (1953) (cited on pg 53 Spoors et al. – Starting with Psychology 2011)
Bransford and Johnson (1972) (cited on pg 55 Spoors et al. – Starting with Psychology 2011)
Mandler (1967) (cited on pg 53 Spoors et al. – Starting with Psychology 2011)
Piaget (cited on pg 54 Spoors et al. – Starting with Psychology 2011)
Raugh and Atkinson (1975) (cited on pg 45 Spoors et al. – Starting with Psychology 21011)


Have you ever heard the saying ???It??™s not easy being green??? There are actually many easy ways to help make our planet greener and healthier. In fact, people have a major influence on the well being of Earth. It is our responsibility to protect our resources so that our habitats will be healthy and beautiful.
One of the most frequent terms associated with being green is recycling. Many communities have developed a system of recycling products made of paper, plastic, glass, aluminum, and other metals. Most systems simply require these items to be placed in a separate container for pickup, like your regular garbage. It has become very popular and is a simple way for individuals to improve our environment. Recycling reduces trash and waste and maintains space in landfills for products that are not recyclable. Because many production processes require the use of water, fossil fuels, and trees, recycling cuts down on the destruction of these resources, many of which are nonrenewable. Many people consider water to be a nonrenewable resource. Although water consumes two-thirds of our planet, only a small amount of that is available at any given time for consumption. Every living thing needs clean water.
Conserving water is extremely important to the health of our environments. The most obvious but often overlooked habit that preserves healthy water is proper waste disposal. Organized garbage disposal maintains a central trash site, which helps prevent scattered pollution that could contaminate ground water. It is important to discard items like paint, batteries, pesticides, and other harmful chemicals at appropriate disposal sites. Wastewater treatment maintains a supply of clean water and prevents disease. Other healthy water habits include reducing shower time, using low-flow showerheads, turning water off while brushing your teeth, and capturing rainwater for irrigation.
On the other hand, trees are considered a renewable resource, and reforestation is an important part of maintaining healthy habitats. Obviously, animals require healthy forests to flourish. Trees provide them with food, shelter, safety, and a place to reproduce. But humans also directly benefit from the replanting of trees and other plants. Many medicines are derived from plant life. Trees and plants also provide oxygen and decrease carbon dioxide in our atmosphere. Reducing carbon dioxide will help decrease the possibility of global warming. Reforestation also decreases soil erosion, which improves farming and water quality. Planting trees is another easy and effective way to be green.
These are only a few of the many different ways to improve the health of our planet. Whether the actions are simple or not, their impact can make a huge contribution to keeping Earth clean and safe. Each person has the power to make our planet a little greener. How will you help

Conservation vs Perservation

Conservation is maintaining our natural resources, such as wildlife, trees, earth, forests, and rivers. I do not think that things such trees should be cut down unless they are going to be replaced with new ones. The trees that are in the forest serve as homes for some animals and the leaves serve as their food.Preservation is the practice of overusing our natural resources. I think the land that we have should be left untouched, so that we can have something left. We have to have somewhere left for the animals to have a small community among themselves. Man is encroaching on untamed land at such a rate that our natural resources are in danger of being depleted.I believe that we as humans should leave the forest alone for our use and let the entirety be left to the animals that have to be there. The forests are home to the wildlife, and the forests are their source of food. When we cut the down the trees in the forest some of the animals are dying because they have no way of living. There should be other ways to come up with other resources to benefit our lifestyle. I agree mainly with conservation. I think that the natural resources should be left in its state of originality.The Bridger-Teton National Forest, according to some people is just a good place to visit. This part of the country is like going back to beginning of the era when there was nothing there. The horses are still their main type of transportation and you can tell that there are no modern upgrades. It is weird to me that there are still bison that just roam freely and they are increasing daily. The Bridger-Teton National Forest should be left as it is.